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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 6-K/A
(Amendment No.1)
REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER
PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 OR 15d-16 UNDER
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the month of August 2021
Commission File Number: 001-39407
Li Auto Inc.
(Registrant’s Name)
11 Wenliang Street
Shunyi District, Beijing 101399
People’s Republic of China
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover
Form 20-F or Form 40-F.
Form 20-F ☒      Form 40-F ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1): ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7): ☐

 
EXPLANATORY NOTE
This Amendment No. 1 (the “Amendment No. 1”) is made to the current report on Form 6-K originally furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 26, 2021 (the “Original Super 6-K”), under which exhibit 99.1 captioned “Li Auto Inc. Supplemental and Updated Disclosures” (the “Original Exhibit 99.1”) was incorporated by reference into the registration statement on Form F-3 of Li Auto Inc. (File No. 333-258378). For the avoidance of doubt, exhibit 99.1 to the Amendment No. 1 replaces and supersedes the Original Exhibit 99.1 and is incorporated by reference into the registration statement on Form F-3 of Li Auto Inc. (File No. 333-258378) and shall be a part thereof from the date on which this Amendment No.1 is furnished, to the extent not superseded by documents or reports subsequently filed or furnished.
 
  

 
EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit No.
Description
Li Auto Inc. Supplemental and Updated Disclosures
 
  

 
SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Li Auto Inc.
By
/s/ Tie Li
Name:
Tie Li
Title:
Director and Chief Financial Officer
Date: August 3, 2021
 
  

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Exhibit 99.1
Li Auto Inc. Supplemental and Updated Disclosures
Li Auto Inc. (the “Company” or “we”) has registered its prospectus (the “Hong Kong prospectus”) with the Registrar of Companies in Hong Kong in connection with a proposed dual primary listing (“the Listing”) of its Class A ordinary shares (“the Shares”) on the Main Board of the Stock Exchange of Hong King Limited (“the Hong Kong Stock Exchange”) together with a Hong Kong initial public offering and a global offering (together, the “Offering”) of the Shares.
The Hong Kong prospectus contains new and supplemental descriptions of certain aspects of the Company’s business and financial information as required by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange Listing Rules as well as updated disclosures of certain information previously disclosed in the Company’s annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020 (the “2020 Form 20-F”). This Supplemental and Updated Disclosures exhibit sets forth such new, supplemental, and updated information and disclosures as described below. The disclosures herein supplement, and should be read in conjunction with, the disclosures in the 2020 Form 20-F and other disclosures furnished on Form 6-K.
There is no assurance as to if or when the Listing will take place. This communication is neither an offer to sell nor a solicitation of an offer to buy, nor shall there be any offer, solicitation, or sale of the Company’s securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation, or sale would be unlawful.
 
  

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This exhibit contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, including statements based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections about us, our industries, and the regulatory environment in which we and companies integral to our business operate. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “target,” “goal,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to,” or other similar expressions.
Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties. A number of factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement, including but not limited to the following: Li Auto’s strategies, future business development, and financial condition and results of operations; Li Auto’s limited operating history; risks associated with extended-range electric vehicles, Li Auto’s ability to develop, manufacture, and deliver vehicles of high quality and appeal to customers; Li Auto’s ability to generate positive cash flow and profits; product defects or any other failure of vehicles to perform as expected; Li Auto’s ability to compete successfully; Li Auto’s ability to build its brand and withstand negative publicity; cancellation of orders for Li Auto’s vehicles; Li Auto’s ability to develop new vehicles; and changes in consumer demand and government incentives, subsidies, or other favorable government policies.
The forward-looking statements made in this exhibit relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this exhibit. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this exhibit completely in conjunction with our annual reports on Form 20-F and other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
 
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
The following section presents updates relating to selected information subsequent to the filing of our 2020 Form 20-F.
Issuance of the 2028 Notes
In April 2021, we issued the US$862.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 0.25% convertible senior notes due 2028, or the 2028 Notes, which may be converted, at an initial conversion rate of 35.2818 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of notes (which represents an initial conversion price of US$28.34 per ADS) at each holder’s option at any time on or after November 1, 2027, until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date of May 1, 2028, or at the option of the holders upon satisfaction of certain conditions and during certain periods prior to the close of business on business day immediately preceding November 1, 2027 based on an initial conversion rate of 35.2818 of our ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of notes. The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon occurrence of certain events. The 2028 Notes bear interest at a rate of 0.25% per year, payable semiannually in arrears on May 1 and November 1 of each year, beginning on November 1, 2021. Holders of the 2028 Notes may require the Company to repurchase all or part of their notes for cash on May 1, 2024 and on May 1, 2026, in each case, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the relevant repurchase date. Assuming full conversion of the 2028 Notes at the initial conversion rate of 35.2818 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount, the 2028 Notes will be convertible into 30,430,552 ADSs, representing 60,861,104 Class A Ordinary Shares. For illustrative purposes only, 60,861,104 Class A Ordinary Shares represent approximately 2.88% of the total issued share capital (as if enlarged by the issue of such shares) of our Company immediately upon completion of the Global Offering (assuming the Over-allotment Option is not exercised and no further Shares are issued under the Share Incentive Plans). Other than optional redemption for changes in the tax laws, the 2028 Notes may not be redeemed by us at our option prior to maturity. For further details of the 2028 Notes, please see the section headed “History, Reorganization and Corporate Structure — Convertible Notes.”
After performing sufficient due diligence work that our Directors consider appropriate and after due and careful consideration, the Directors confirm that, up to the date of this prospectus, there has been no material adverse change in our financial or trading position or prospects since March 31, 2021, being the end date of the periods reported on in the Accountant’s Report included in Appendix I to the Hong Kong prospectus, and there is no event since March 31, 2021 that would materially affect the information as set out in the Accountant’s Report included in Appendix I to the Hong Kong prospectus.
Recent Business Developments
The Li ONEs we sold during the Track Record Period were previous generation of Li ONEs with an NEDC range of 800 kilometers prior to our release of 2021 Li ONE. Subsequent to the Track Record Period, we delivered 5,539, 4,323, 7,713 and 8,589 Li ONEs in April, May, June, and July 2021, respectively. As of July 31, 2021, we delivered 72,340 Li ONEs in total. As Li ONE continues to gain traction rapidly, our new orders surpassed 10,000 in June 2021, hitting a record high. On July 10, 2021, we opened our 100th retail store.
On May 25, 2021, we released the 2021 Li ONE equipped with navigation on ADAS (NOA) as a standard configuration. The 2021 Li ONE features comprehensive upgrades, including an enhanced NEDC range of 1,080 kilometers, optimized mobility comfort, and more intelligent cockpit, bringing premium features to our users at an MSRP of RMB338,000 (approximately US$52,000). We began deliveries of the 2021 Li ONE on June 1, 2021 and we delivered 7,333 2021 Li ONEs in June 2021.
In July 2021, we signed a memorandum of understanding with a local company for collaboration in a reconstruction and expansion project of an automobile manufacturing plant in Shunyi District, Beijing, China.
 
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
We were loss-making during the Track Record Period and expect to continue to incur widening net loss in 2021 primarily due to our continuing investments in (i) the research and development of our future models and autonomous driving solutions and (ii) the expansion of our sales and servicing network. See “Risk Factors—We recorded net losses and had negative net cash flows from operations in the past, and we have not been profitable, which may continue in the future.”
Recent Regulatory Developments
On July 10, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China published the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (Revised Draft for Comments), which stipulate that if an operator has personal information of over one million users and intends to be listed in a foreign country, it must be subject to the cybersecurity review. As advised by our PRC Legal Advisor, the draft measures were released for public comment only, and its implementation provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change and thus remain substantially uncertain. We cannot predict the impact of the draft measures, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. See “Risk Factors—Our business is subject to various evolving PRC laws and regulations regarding data privacy and cybersecurity. Failure of cybersecurity and data privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations.” Under the current PRC cybersecurity laws, critical information infrastructure operators that intend to purchase internet products and services that may affect national security must be subject to the cybersecurity review. As advised by our PRC Legal Advisor, the exact scope of “critical information infrastructure operators” under the draft measures and the current regulatory regime remains unclear, and the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws. Currently, the Cybersecurity Law has not directly affected our business and operations, but in anticipation of the strengthened implementation of cybersecurity laws and regulations and the expansion of our business, we face potential risks if we are deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator under the Cybersecurity Law. In such case, we must fulfill certain obligations as required under the Cybersecurity Law and other applicable laws, including, among others, storing personal information and important data collected and produced within the PRC territory during our operations in China, which we have fulfilled in our business, and we may be subject to review when purchasing internet products and services. If a final version of the draft measures is adopted, we may be subject to review when conducting data processing activities, and may face challenges in addressing its requirements and make necessary changes to our internal policies and practices in data processing. As of the date of this document, we have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review made by the Cyberspace Administration of China on such basis, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions in such respect. Based on the foregoing, we and our PRC Legal Advisor do not expect that, as of the date of this document, the current applicable PRC laws on cybersecurity would have a material adverse impact on our business.
On July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC government authorities made public the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As these opinions are recently issued, official guidance and related implementation rules have not been issued yet and the interpretation of these opinions remains unclear at this stage. See “Risk Factors—The approval of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval.” As of the date of this document, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions regarding this offering from the CSRC or any other PRC government authorities. Based on the foregoing and the currently effective PRC laws, we and our
 
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
PRC Legal Advisor are of the view that, as of the date of this document, these opinions do not have a material adverse impact on our business.
Based on the currently available information and independent due diligence work conducted by the Joint Sponsors, including but not limited to, (i) discussing with the management of the Company to understand, among others, the cybersecurity and data privacy control of the Company and imminent impact on the business of the Company caused by the current applicable PRC laws and the recent regulatory developments on cybersecurity; (ii) reviewing representations made by the Company in the responses to the due diligence questionnaire and the relevant supporting documents, and (iii) discussing with the PRC Legal Advisor on, among others, the potential impact and latest status of the aforementioned recent regulatory developments. Based on the foregoing facts and analysis and having considered the relevant due diligence conducted by the Joint Sponsors, nothing has come to the attention of the Joint Sponsors that would cause them to cast doubt on the reasonableness of the Company’s and the PRC Legal Advisor’s views that (i) they do not expect that, as of the date of this document, the current applicable PRC laws on cybersecurity would have a material adverse impact on the business of the Company and (ii) as of the date of this document, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law do not have a material adverse impact on the business of the Company.
 
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RISK FACTORS
The following section sets forth certain risk factors that have been updated and supplemented since the filing of our 2020 Form 20-F as well as additional new risk factors relating to the Listing.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
We have a limited operating history and face significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry.
We were founded in 2015, started volume production of our first vehicle model, Li ONE, in November 2019, and delivered over 72,000 Li ONEs as of July 31, 2021. There is no historical basis for making judgments on the demand for our vehicles or our ability to develop, manufacture, and deliver vehicles, or our profitability in the future. It is difficult to predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we may have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we face as a new entrant into our industry, including with respect to our ability to continuously advance our EV technologies such as EREV and HPC BEV technologies, to develop and manufacture safe, reliable, and quality vehicles that appeal to users; delivery and servicing of a large volume of vehicles; turn profitable; build a well-recognized and respected brand cost-effectively; expand our vehicle lineup; navigate the evolving regulatory environment; improve and maintain our operational efficiency; manage supply chain effectively; and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape; and manage our growth effectively.
While we currently focus on SUVs equipped with range extension systems, we will introduce new models in other categories or using other technologies that we have less experience in, such as BEV models or BEV technologies, as we may adjust our strategies and plans from time to time to remain competitive as a new entrant into our industry. If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our ability to develop, manufacture, and deliver automobiles of high quality and appeal to users, on schedule, and on a large scale is unproven and still evolving.
The sustainability of our business depends, in large part, on our ability to timely execute our plan to develop, manufacture, and deliver on a large scale automobiles of high quality and appeal to users. The current annual production capacity of our own Changzhou manufacturing facility is 100,000 units with a utilization rate of approximately 36% in 2020, which we plan to fully utilize and increase to 200,000 vehicles in 2022. Our Changzhou manufacturing facility will continue to produce Li ONE and, with additional investment in necessary tooling and fixture upgrades, our planned full-size premium smart extended-range electric SUV. To date we have limited automobile manufacturing experience to balance production volume and vehicle quality and appeal, and therefore cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve our targeted production volume of commercially viable vehicles on a timely basis, or at all.
Our continued development, manufacturing, and delivery of automobiles of high quality to achieve our targeted production volume are and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

lack of necessary funding;

delays or disruptions in our supply chain;

delays in the research and development of technologies necessary for our vehicles;

quality control deficiencies;

compliance with environmental, workplace safety, and relevant regulations; and

cost overruns.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Historically, automakers are expected to periodically introduce new and improved models to stay abreast of the market. To remain competitive, we may be required to introduce new vehicle models and perform facelifts on existing vehicle models earlier or more frequently than is originally planned. We cannot assure you that facelifts on Li ONE or any future models we launch will appeal to the users as we expect or that any introduction of new models or facelifts will not affect the sales of existing models.
Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any difficulties in providing us with or developing necessary components, we could experience delays in delivering vehicles. Any delay in the development, manufacturing, and delivery of Li ONE or future models, or in performing facelifts to existing models, could subject us to user complaints and materially and adversely affect our reputation, demand for our vehicles, and our growth prospects.
Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We currently depend on revenues generated from a single model of vehicles and in the foreseeable future from a limited number of models.
Our business currently depends substantially on the sales and success of Li ONE, which is our only production model in the market until the introduction of our planned full-size premium smart extended-range electric SUV in 2022, and two more extended-range electric SUV models. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year. To the extent our product variety and cycles do not meet consumer expectations, or cannot be achieved on our projected timelines and cost and volume targets, our future sales may be adversely affected. Given that for the foreseeable future our business will depend on a limited number of vehicle models, to the extent a particular model, such as our planned HPC BEV model, is not timely launched or well-received by the market, our sales volume could be materially and adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our vehicles are designed and manufactured for Chinese families, and this is likely the case in the foreseeable future. If the demand for our vehicles significantly decreases, due to a significant change in the average spending power of Chinese families, significant decrease in the number of Chinese families, mismatched market positioning, or other reasons, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, our single standard configuration with a flat price for Li ONE may not be as effective as we intend. We provide premium and technology features that are typically offered as costly add-ons by our competitors as standard in Li ONE, to save users’ time and money while alleviating our burden in production, sales, and support. However, we cannot assure you that such endeavors will succeed. Users may prefer personalized features based on diversified tastes and needs. In addition, our flat pricing could still exceed certain users’ budget significantly. To the extent that we are unable to meet various user needs in promoting our single standard configuration with flat pricing for Li ONE, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to risks associated with EREVs.
EREVs accounted for only 2.8% of the NEV market in terms of sales volume in 2020, according to the CIC Report. EREV technologies are advanced technologies with limited instances of successful commercialization. There is no assurance that EREVs will be continue to be accepted by the market. Moreover, our business and future results of operations will depend on our ability to continue to develop our EREV technologies and improve the performance and efficiency in a cost-effective and timely manner. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in the EREV technologies as well as developments in other EV technologies, including BEV technology, which
 
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may reduce the competitive advantages of EREV technology. As technologies evolve, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models with the latest technologies, including EREV technologies. This will require us to invest resources in research and development and to cooperate effectively on new designs with our suppliers, develop actionable insights from data analysis and user feedback, and respond effectively to technological changes and policy and regulatory developments.
As a pioneer to successfully commercialize EREVs in China, we have limited experience to date in volume production of EREVs. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain efficient and automated manufacturing capabilities and processes, or reliable sources of component supply that will enable us to meet the quality, price, design, engineering, and production standards, as well as the production volumes to satisfy the market demand for Li ONE and future models.
We also believe that user confidence in EREVs is essential in promoting our vehicles. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our EREVs if they are not convinced of the technical and functional superiority of EREVs. Any defects in or significant malfunctioning of the range extension system, or any negative perceptions of EREVs with or without any grounds, may weaken consumer confidence in EREVs, cause safety concerns among consumers and negatively impact our brand name, financial condition, and results of operations. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.
We recorded net losses and had negative net cash flows from operations in the past, and we have not been profitable, which may continue in the future.
We have not been profitable since our inception. We incurred net loss of RMB1.5 billion, RMB2.4 billion, RMB151.7 million (US$23.1 million), and RMB360.0 million (US$54.9 million) in 2018, 2019, and 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, respectively. We expect to continue to incur widening net loss in 2021 primarily due to our continuing investments in (i) the research and development of our future models and autonomous driving solutions, and (ii) the expansion of our production facilities and sales and servicing network. In addition, we had negative net cash flows from operating activities of RMB1.3 billion and RMB1.8 billion in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, we had positive net cash flows from operating activities of RMB3.1 billion (US$479.2 million) and RMB926.3 million (US$141.4 million), respectively. We made capital expenditures of RMB970.7 million, RMB952.9 million, RMB675.2 million (US$103.1 million), and RMB356.1 million (US$54.4 million) in 2018, 2019, and 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, respectively. The pressure on us to generate or maintain positive cash flow may be further exacerbated by our contractual obligations, including capital commitments, operating lease obligations, purchase obligations, finance leases and borrowings. We expect to continue to invest in the production ramp-up of Li ONE, expansion of the Changzhou manufacturing facility, expansion of retail stores, galleries, and delivery and servicing centers, and research and development to further expand our business. These investments may not result in revenue increase, or at all, and we may have negative net cash flows from operations again in the future.
We may not generate sufficient revenues or continue to incur substantial losses for a number of reasons, including lack of demand for our vehicles, increasing competition, and other risks discussed herein, and we may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications, or delays in deriving revenues or achieving profitability.
Our research and development efforts may not yield the results as expected.
As an emerging automaker, we heavily rely on research and development to establish and strengthen our market position. We develop electric vehicle technologies, such as next- generation EREV powertrain system, high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, ultra-fast charging technologies, autonomous driving
 
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technologies, next-generation intelligent cockpit, operating systems, and computing platforms. In 2018, 2019, and 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, our research and development expenses amounted to RMB793.7 million, RMB1.2 billion, RMB1.1 billion (US$167.9 million), and RMB514.5 million (US$78.5 million), respectively. Our research and development expenses accounted for 11.6% and 14.4% of our total revenues in 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, respectively. As technologies evolve, we plan to upgrade or adopt our vehicles and introduce new models with latest technologies, which will require us to invest resources in research and development. Therefore, we expect that our research and development expenses will continue to be significant. As research and development activities are inherently uncertain, we cannot assure you that we will continue to achieve desirable developments from our research and development activities and successfully commercialize such developments. Consequently, our significant research and development efforts may not yield the results as expected. If our research and development efforts fail to keep up with the latest technological developments, we could suffer a decline in our competitive position, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We could experience disruptions in supply of raw materials or components used in our vehicles from our suppliers, some of which are our single-source suppliers for the components they supply.
Li ONE uses over 1,900 parts, including battery cells and semiconductor chips, that we source from over 190 suppliers, some of which are currently our single-source suppliers selected from two or more suppliers that are readily available in the market for these components, and we expect that this may continue for our future vehicles that we may produce. We also rely on key raw materials, such as steel and aluminum, sourced from our suppliers. The supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages. Although we reserve the flexibility to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other players in our industry, many of the components used in our vehicles are purchased by us from a single source. Following the disruptions to semiconductor manufacturers due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an increase in global demand for personal computers for work-from-home economies, there is an ongoing global chip shortage, which would materially and adversely affect the automotive industry. The supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages.
We do not control our suppliers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that the quality of the components manufactured by them will be consistent and maintained to a high standard. Any defects of or quality issues with these components or any noncompliance incidents associated with these third-party suppliers could result in quality issues with our vehicles and hence compromise our brand image and results of operations. Additionally, we cannot guarantee the suppliers’ compliance with ethical business practices, such as environmental responsibilities, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and results in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages, or other disruptions of our operations.
Furthermore, qualifying alternate suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of Li ONE may be time consuming and costly. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single-source supplier, could temporarily disrupt production of our vehicles until an alternative supplier is fully qualified by us or is otherwise able to supply us the required material. We cannot assure you that we would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers or supplies on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. Changes in business conditions, force majeure, government changes, or other factors beyond our control or anticipation, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Moreover, if we experience a significant increase in demand or need to replace our existing suppliers, there can be no assurance that additional supplies will be available when required on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, or that any supplier would allocate
 
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sufficient supplies to us in order to meet our requirements or fill our orders in a timely manner. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Orders for Li ONE may be canceled by users despite their deposit payment and online confirmation.
Our users may cancel their orders for many reasons outside of our control, and we have experienced cancelation of orders in the past. In addition, users may terminate their orders even after they have paid deposits and waited for 24 hours upon which their orders automatically become confirmed orders and the deposits become non-fundable. The potentially long wait from reservation to delivery could also impact user decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase, due to potential changes in preferences, competitive developments, and other factors. If we encounter delays in the deliveries of Li ONE or future vehicle models, a significant number of orders may be canceled. As a result, we cannot assure you that orders will not be canceled and will ultimately result in the final purchase, delivery, and sale of the vehicles. Such cancelations could harm our business, brand image, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Changes in PRC government policies that are favorable for NEVs or domestically manufactured vehicles could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
The growth of our business benefits from PRC government policies at central and local levels that support the development of NEVs and domestically manufactured vehicles. There are uncertainties about governments’ support for HPC network, which is essential to our plan to launch HPC BEVs.
The PRC government has been implementing strict vehicle emission standards for ICE vehicles. On December 28, 2018, the PRC State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR and the PRC National Standardization Administration jointly issued the Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption Standards, effective on July 1, 2019, to regulate electric vehicles regarding their energy efficiency. As an EREV, Li ONE is equipped with both an ICE-based range extension system and electric motors, and is thus required to comply with both standards. If the electric vehicle energy consumption standards and vehicle emission standards become significantly stricter, we may incur significant costs to obtain advanced energy technology to upgrade our vehicles or design new vehicles if we are able to at all, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
In addition, changes in classification of NEVs and license plate policies have affected, and may continue to affect our business. In certain cities in China, municipal governments impose quotas and lottery or bidding systems to limit the number of license plates issued to ICE vehicles, but exempt NEVs from these restrictions to incentivize the development of the NEV market. Nevertheless, in January 2018, the Beijing municipal government announced that it would only allow BEVs to be considered the NEVs exempt from the license plate restrictions, and EREVs would be treated as ICE vehicles in Beijing for the purposes of obtaining license plates. On December 10, 2018, the NDRC, promulgated the Provisions on Administration of Investment in Automotive Industry, effective on January 10, 2019, which categorize EREVs as electric vehicles, although its impact on the Beijing municipal government’s license plate policy remained uncertain. Similarly, in February 2021, the local counterpart of the NDRC and other four governmental authorities in Shanghai announced similar arrangements that only BEVs would be considered the NEVs exempt from the license plate restrictions starting from January 1, 2023. As a result, Li ONEs sold in Beijing and Shanghai may not enjoy the exemptions from the license plate restrictions available to the BEVs. Two of the major markets for Li ONEs are Beijing and Shanghai, whose respective cumulative sales volume accounts for 6.3% and 9.4% of our total cumulative sales volume as of April 30, 2021, according to the CIC Report. It is uncertain whether the arrangements regarding license plate restrictions will reduce the demand for EREVs, and Li ONEs in particular, in Beijing and Shanghai. Although we are currently not aware of any government plan to adopt similar
 
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measures in areas other than Beijing and Shanghai, changes in government policies on the classification of NEVs and license plates, at a local or central level, may materially and adversely affect the demand for Li ONE and our future vehicles, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial conditions, and prospects.
Furthermore, changes in government incentives or subsidies to support NEVs could adversely affect our business. EREVs enjoy certain favorable government incentives and subsidies, including exemption from vehicle purchase tax, one-time government subsidies, exemption from license plate restrictions in certain cities, exemption from driving restrictions in certain cities, and preferential utility rates for charging facilities. However, China’s central government has begun implementing a phase-out schedule for the subsidies provided for purchasers of certain NEVs, which provided that the amount of subsidies provided for purchasers of certain NEVs in 2019 and 2020 would be reduced by 48% as compared to 2017 levels. In April 2020, the PRC Ministry of Finance and other national regulatory authorities issued a circular to extend the original end date of subsidies for NEV purchasers to the end of 2022 and reduce the amount of subsidies in 10% increments each year commencing from 2020. However, only NEVs with an MSRP of RMB300,000 or less before subsidies are eligible for such subsidies starting from July 2020, and the MSRP of Li ONE is higher than the threshold. Li ONE used to be eligible for a government subsidy of RMB10,000 per individual buyer before April 2020, which already had been effectively reflected in the then MSRP of RMB328,000 (approximately US$50,000). Such government subsidy was reduced to RMB8,500 per individual buyer from April to July 2020. After July 2020, Li ONE is no longer eligible for such government subsidy. The MSRP of the Li ONE had remained to be RMB328,000 (approximately US$50,000), regardless of whether Li ONE is eligible for the government subsidy, until the release of the 2021 Li ONE on May 25, 2021. Therefore, the phase-out and cease of the government subsidies have resulted in a decrease of our revenues per vehicle.
Moreover, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully commercialize or otherwise offer vehicles that meet this subsidy threshold. We cannot assure you that any further changes would be favorable to our business. Furthermore, any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of NEVs, fiscal tightening or other factors may affect government incentives or subsides and result in the diminished competitiveness of the NEV industry generally.
Our vehicles sales are also impacted by government policies including tariffs on imported cars. According to an announcement by the PRC government, the tariff on imported passenger vehicles (other than those originating in the United States of America) was reduced to 15% starting from July 1, 2018. As a result, pricing advantage of domestically manufactured vehicles could be diminished. Pursuant to the Special Administrative Measures for Market Access of Foreign Investment (2020), or the 2020 Negative List, which is jointly promulgated by the NDRC and the Ministry of Commerce and became effective on July 23, 2020, there is no limit on foreign ownership of automakers for NEVs. In addition, the limits on foreign ownership of automakers for ICE passenger vehicles would be lifted by 2022. As a result, foreign NEV competitors and in the future foreign ICE automakers could build wholly-owned facilities in China without the need for a domestic joint venture partner. For example, Tesla has completed its construction of a factory in Shanghai without a joint venture partner and has begun operations. These changes could intensify market competition and reduce our pricing advantage, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial conditions, and prospects.
The global shortage in the supply of semiconductor chips may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Since October 2020, the supply of semiconductor chips used for automotive manufacturing has been subject to a global shortage following the disruption to semiconductor manufacturers due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an increase in global demand for personal computers for work-from-home
 
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economies. Although as of the Latest Practicable Date, we had not experienced any disruption in the manufacture of our vehicles due to a shortage in the supply of chips, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to obtain sufficient amount of chips or other semiconductor components at a reasonable cost. In addition, similar to other components, many of the semiconductor components used in our vehicles are purchased by us from a single source although we reserve the flexibility to obtain the components from multiple sources. If the suppliers for the semiconductor components become unable to meet our demand on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be required to switch to other suppliers, which could be time consuming and costly. If we fail to find alternative suppliers in time, or at all, our production and deliveries could be materially disrupted, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
The global shortage in the supply of battery packs may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our vehicles currently make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which we purchase from third-party suppliers. The prices for the battery cells fluctuate, and their available supply may be unstable, depending on market conditions and global demand for the battery cells and the materials used in the battery cells, such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese. There is a looming shortage of battery packs since mid-2020 as a result of an increase in global demand due to increased production of NEVs, rising demand for raw material of battery cells, and the disruption in the supply chain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although as of the Latest Practicable Date, we had not experienced any disruption in the manufacture of our vehicles due to a shortage in the supply of battery packs, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to obtain sufficient amount of battery packs at a reasonable cost. Our business is dependent on the continued supply of battery packs used in our vehicles. We purchase battery pack from CATL, with which we have developed close partnership for battery packs. If CATL becomes unable to meet our demand on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be required to switch to alternative suppliers. Any disruption in the supply of battery packs from CATL could disrupt production of our vehicles until such time as we find an alternative supplier. There can be no assurance that we would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers on a timely basis, on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to find alternative suppliers in time, our production and deliveries could be materially disrupted, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
If we fail to effectively manage our inventory, our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We are exposed to inventory risks that may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects as a result of increased competition, seasonality, new model launches, rapid changes in vehicle life cycles and pricing, defective vehicles, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, and other factors. In order to operate our business effectively and meet our users’ demands and expectations, we must maintain a certain level of inventory to avoid overstocking or understocking issues and ensure timely delivery. We determine our level of inventory based on our experience and assessment of user demands and number of orders from users.
However, forecasts are inherently uncertain, and the demand for our vehicles may change between the order date and the projected delivery date. If we fail to accurately forecast the demand, we may experience inventory obsolescence and inventory shortage risk. Inventory levels in excess of demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices, which could adversely affect our profitability. We did not recognize inventory write-downs in 2018, 2019, and 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021. In addition, if we underestimate the demand for our vehicles, we may not be able to manufacture a sufficient number of vehicles to meet such unanticipated demand, which could result in delays in the delivery of our vehicles and harm our reputation.
 
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Any of the above may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. As we plan to continue to expand our vehicle offerings, we may continue to face challenges in effectively managing our inventory.
We may be compelled to undertake product recalls or other actions, which could adversely affect our brand image, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects.
We may be subject to adverse publicity, damage to our brand, and costs for recalls of our vehicles. Effective on November 7, 2020, we voluntarily recalled 10,469 Li ONEs produced on or before June 1, 2020 to replace, free of charge, the control arm ball joint of the front suspension on these Li ONEs in accordance with the requirements by the SAMR. Li ONEs produced after June 1, 2020 are already equipped with an upgraded version of the control arm ball joint of the front suspension. As of the date of this prospectus, we completed over 98.5% of all the replacements and are not aware of any material accidents due to any defects in the control arm ball joint of the front suspension being replaced.
In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable laws and regulations. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects.
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to issue additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our shareholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.
We will need significant capital to, among other things, conduct research and development, expand our production capacity, and roll out our retail stores, galleries, and delivery and servicing centers. As we ramp up our production capacity and operations we may also require significant capital to maintain our property, plant, and equipment and such costs may be greater than what we currently anticipate. We expect that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by consumer demand for our products and services. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from what we currently anticipate. We may seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all. If we cannot obtain sufficient capital on acceptable terms, our business, financial condition, and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities, or substantially change our corporate structure. As of December 31, 2018 and 2019, we had shareholders’ deficit of RMB2.4 billion and RMB5.7 billion, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, we had shareholders’ equity of RMB29.8 billion (US$4.5 billion) and RMB29.7 billion (US$4.5 billion), respectively. We may have shareholders’ deficit balance in the future, which may limit our ability to obtain financing and materially and adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. We might not be able to obtain any funding or service any of the debts we incurred, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.
In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to issue additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The issuance of additional equity or equity-linked
 
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securities could dilute our shareholders and our memorandum and articles of association do not contain any anti-dilution provision. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in an increase in debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
Our business is subject to various evolving PRC laws and regulations regarding data privacy and cybersecurity. Failure of cybersecurity and data privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations.
We face significant challenges with respect to cybersecurity and data privacy, including the storage, transmission, and sharing of confidential information. We transmit and store confidential and private information of our users, such as personal information, including names, user accounts, passwords, and payment or transaction-related information.
We are subject to various regulatory requirements relating to cybersecurity and data privacy, including, without limitation the PRC Cybersecurity Law. See “Regulations—Regulations on Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection.” We are required by these laws and regulations to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and authenticity of the information of our users and distributors, which is also essential to maintaining their confidence in our vehicles and services. We have adopted strict information security policies and deployed advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of our products and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others can still result in a compromise or breach of our websites, the Li Auto App, or our vehicles’ electronic systems. If we are unable to protect our systems, and hence the information stored in our systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction, such problems or security breaches could cause a loss, give rise to our liabilities to the owners of confidential information, or subject us to fines and other penalties. In addition, complying with various laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices, including our data practices, in a manner adverse to our business.
In addition, regulatory requirements on cybersecurity and data privacy are constantly evolving and can be subject to varying interpretations or significant changes, resulting in uncertainties about the scope of our responsibilities in that regard. For example, the Cyberspace Administration of China issued the Several Provisions on Automobile Data Security Management (Draft for Comments) on May 12, 2021, which further elaborates the principles and requirements for the protection of personal information and important data in the automotive industry, and defines any enterprise or institution engaging in the automobile design, manufacture, and service as a relevant operator. Such operator is required to process personal information or important data in accordance with applicable laws during the automobile design, manufacture, sales, operation, maintenance, and management. On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which will take effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law provides for a security review procedure for the data activities that may affect national security. Furthermore, Measures for Cybersecurity Review, which became effective on June 1, 2020, set forth the cybersecurity review mechanism for critical information infrastructure operators, and provided that critical information infrastructure operators who intend to purchase internet products and services that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to a cybersecurity review. On July 10, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China published the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (Revised Draft for Comments), which further restates and expands the applicable scope of the cybersecurity review. Pursuant to the draft measures, critical information infrastructure operators that intend to purchase internet products and services and data processing operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security must be subject to the cybersecurity review. The draft measures further stipulate that if an operator has personal information of over one million users and intends to be listed in a foreign country, it must be subject to
 
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the cybersecurity review. See “Regulations—Regulations on Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection.” As advised by our PRC Legal Advisor, the draft measures were released for public comment only, and its operative provisions and the anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change with substantial uncertainty. The draft measures remain unclear on whether the relevant requirements will be applicable to companies that intend to be listed in Hong Kong or companies that have been listed in the United States and intend to be listed in Hong Kong, such as us. Furthermore, the exact scope of “critical information infrastructure operators” under the draft measures and the current regulatory regime remains unclear, and the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws. Therefore, it is uncertain whether we would be deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator under PRC law. It also remains uncertain whether the future regulatory changes would impose additional restrictions on companies like us. We cannot predict the impact of the draft measures, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. If the enacted version of the draft measures mandates clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be completed by companies like us, we face uncertainties as to whether such clearance can be timely obtained, or at all. If we are not able to comply with the cybersecurity and data privacy requirements in a timely manner, or at all, we may be subject to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension of our non-compliant operations, or removal of our app from the relevant application stores, among other sanctions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We provide a five-year or 100,000-kilometer limited warranty for new vehicles, and an eight-year or 120,000-kilometer limited warranty for battery packs, electric motors, and electric motor controllers. Currently, we also offer each initial owner extended lifetime warranty, subject to certain conditions. Our warranty program is similar to other automakers’ warranty programs and is intended to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the body, chassis, suspension, interior, electric systems, battery, powertrain, and brake system. It also covers free road assistance under the warranty coverage. We plan to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs. However, because we only started the volume production of Li ONE in November 2019, our experience with warranty claims regarding our vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves is limited. We cannot assure you that our warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover future warranty claims. We could, in the future, become subject to a significant and unexpected warranty claims, resulting in significant expenses, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We have granted, and may continue to grant options and other types of awards under our share incentive plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
We adopted a share incentive plan in July 2019, or the 2019 Plan, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors, and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. We further adopted the 2020 Share Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, in July 2020 and the 2021 Share Incentive Plan, or the 2021 Plan, in March 2021, in each case for the same purpose. Under the 2019 Plan, 2020 Plan, and 2021 Plan, we are authorized to grant options and other types of awards. The maximum number of Class A ordinary shares that may be issued pursuant to all awards Plan is 141,083,452. The maximum number of Class A ordinary shares that may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2020 Plan is 165,696,625. The maximum number of Class B ordinary shares that may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2021 Plan is 108,557,400, all of which had been granted as CEO Award Shares and will be converted to Class A ordinary shares on a one-to-one basis with effect immediately upon the Listing. See “Statutory and General Information—Share Incentive Plans” in Appendix IV to the Hong Kong prospectus. As of the Latest Practicable Date, awards to
 
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purchase an aggregate amount of 55,393,578 Class A ordinary shares under the 2019 Plan and awards to purchase an aggregate amount of 35,792,086 Class A ordinary shares under the 2020 Plan had been granted and were outstanding, excluding awards that were forfeited or canceled after the relevant grant dates. On March 8, 2021, we granted options to purchase 108,557,400 Class B ordinary shares under our 2021 Share Incentive Plan to Mr. Li, our chairman and chief executive officer, with certain performance- based vesting conditions. On May 5, 2021, the Board approved to replace such options with the same amount of Class B ordinary shares under the same plan, all of which have become vested upon grant on May 5, 2021, subject to certain undertakings of restrictions by Mr. Li based on certain performance conditions substantially similar to the vesting conditions of the options being replaced. These Class B ordinary shares will be converted to Class A ordinary shares on a one-to-one basis with effect immediately upon the Listing. See “Statutory and General Information—Share Incentive Plans—The 2021 Plan” in Appendix IV to this document.
We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Furthermore, perspective candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Thus, our ability to attract or retain highly skilled employees may be adversely affected by declines in the perceived value of our equity or equity awards. Furthermore, there are no assurances that the number of shares reserved for issuance under our share incentive plans will be sufficient to grant equity awards adequate to recruit new employees and to compensate existing employees.
As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted, and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated, or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As of March 31, 2021, we had 893 issued patents and 749 pending patent applications in China. We cannot assure you that all our pending patent applications will result in issued patents. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents accordingly, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented, or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others could bar us from licensing and exploiting our patents. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields where we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing patents or pending patent applications may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.
We might not be able to fulfil our obligation in respect of deferred revenue, which might have impact on our cash or liquidity position.
Our recognition of deferred revenue is subject to future performance obligations. Our deferred revenue mainly includes the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially satisfied, which mainly arises from the undelivered vehicles, charging stalls, vehicle internet connection services, FOTA upgrades, and extended lifetime warranties for initial owners, as well as customer loyalty points offered in connection with the purchase of Li ONE. We may have multiple
 
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performance obligations identified in one vehicle sales contract and the purchase price for sales of our vehicles and all embedded products and services to a user for which we have received consideration, or an amount of consideration is due, from the user, is recorded as deferred revenue. Due to potential future changes in user preferences and the need for us to satisfactorily perform product support and other services, deferred revenue at any particular date may not be representative of actual revenue for any current or future period. Any failure to fulfil the obligations in respect of deferred revenue may have an adverse impact on our results of operations and liquidity.
Fluctuation of fair value change of short-term and long-term investments that we made may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
During the Track Record Period, our short-term investments primarily consisted of investments in financial instruments with variable interest rates and maturity dates within one year, and our long-term investments primarily consisted of investments in publicly traded companies and privately-held companies. The methodologies that we use to assess the fair value of the short-term and long-term investments involve a significant degree of management judgment and are inherently uncertain. In addition, we are exposed to credit risks in relation to our short-term and long-term investments, which may adversely affect the net changes in their fair value. We cannot assure you that market conditions will create fair value gains on our short-term and long-term investments or we will not incur any fair value losses on our short-term and long-term investments in the future. If we incur such fair value losses, our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.
We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions.
We have entered into and may in the future enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by third parties, and increases in expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their businesses, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.
In addition, if appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies, or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible shareholder approval, we may have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increasing delay and costs, and may derail our business strategy if we fail to do so. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. Furthermore, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amount of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets, and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. As of December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020 and March 31, 2021, we had net intangible assets of RMB671.4 million, RMB673.9 million, RMB683.3 million (US$104.3 million), and RMB684.6 million (US$104.5 million), respectively, which primarily consist of the automotive manufacturing permission, software, and patents. We test finite-lived intangible assets for impairment if impairment indicators arise. The indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Although we recorded no impairment of intangible assets for the years ended
 
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December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, any significant impairment loss charged against our intangible assets could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Furthermore, any acquired business may be involved in legal proceedings originating from historical periods prior to the acquisition, and we may not be fully indemnified, or at all, for any damage to us resulting from such legal proceedings, which could materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
If we update our manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, we may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in our depreciation could negatively affect our financial results.
We have invested and expect to continue to invest significantly in what we believe is modern tooling, machinery, and other manufacturing equipment for the product lines where Li ONE is manufactured, and we depreciate the cost of such equipment over their expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and we may decide to update our manufacturing process with advanced equipment more quickly than expected. Moreover, as our engineering and manufacturing expertise and efficiency increase, we may be able to manufacture our products using less of our installed equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and to the extent we own such equipment, our results of operations could be negatively impacted. We are planning on the reconfiguration of our Changzhou factory for our new model pipeline, especially the full-size premium SUV based on the X platform to be launched in 2022. The investment for the expansion and reconfiguration of our Changzhou factory is estimated to be approximately RMB1.6 billion, over 65% will be used for the purchase of production facilities and the remaining will be used for construction of manufacturing plants. Our increased investment in the manufacturing plants will result in an increase in depreciation cost upon expansion of our Changzhou factory, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Certain of our directors have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits.
Several putative shareholder class action lawsuits have been filed against certain of our directors. See “Directors and Senior Management—Directors—Legal proceedings involving certain Directors” for more details. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits, if they proceed. We anticipate that we or certain of our directors or officers may be a target for lawsuits in the future, including putative class action lawsuits brought by our shareholders and lawsuits against our directors and officers as a result of their position in other public companies. We cannot assure you that our directors or officers and we will be able to prevail in their defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and our directors or officers and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows, and reputation. In addition, we cannot assure you that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial performance.
 
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RISKS RELATING TO OUR CORPORATE STRUCTURE
If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
Current PRC laws and regulations place certain restrictions on foreign ownership of certain areas of businesses. For example, pursuant to the 2020 Negative List, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (excluding e-commerce, domestic multiparty communications, store-and-forward and call centers). In addition, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in companies engaged in internet culture businesses (except for music) and radio and television program production businesses.
We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign- invested enterprises, or FIEs. Therefore, neither we nor our FIEs are currently eligible to apply for the required licenses for providing internet information services or other value-added telecommunication services or conduct other businesses that foreign-owned companies are prohibited or restricted from conducting in China. To comply with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we conduct certain operations in China by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with our VIEs in China and its respective shareholders. In particular, Beijing CHJ holds a Surveying and Mapping Qualification Certificate. Beijing CLX, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Beijing CHJ, currently holds a Value-Added Telecommunication Business Operating License for Internet Information Service, or the ICP License, a Value-Added Telecommunication Business Operating License for Information Service (excluding internet information service), an Internet Culture Business Permit, and an Operating License for the Production and Dissemination of Radio and Television Programs. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Contractual Arrangements.” We conduct our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs with which we maintained these contractual arrangements. Investors in our Class A ordinary shares or the ADSs thus are not purchasing equity interest in our VIEs in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership of our VIEs.
In the opinion of Han Kun Law Offices, our PRC Legal Advisor, (i) the ownership structures of our wholly-owned subsidiary Wheels Technology and our VIEs in China, both currently and immediately after giving effect to this offering, are not in violation of any explicit provisions of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) each of the contracts among the WFOE, our VIEs, and their respective Registered Shareholders governed by PRC laws is valid and binding. However, we have been advised by our PRC Legal Advisor that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules, and there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will take a view that is consistent with the opinion of our PRC Legal Advisor.
Our holding company in the Cayman Islands, our VIEs, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and, consequently, the business, financial condition, and results of operations of our VIEs and our company as a group. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. In particular, the National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, or the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law on March 15, 2019, which came into effect on January 1, 2020. In addition, the PRC State Council approved the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law on December 26, 2019, which came into effect on January 1, 2020. There are uncertainties as to how the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Rules would be further interpreted and implemented, if it would represent a major change to the laws and regulations relating to the VIE structures. See “—Risks Relating
 
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to Doing Business in China—Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of newly enacted 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Rules and how they may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance, and operations.”
If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements, and businesses of our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

revoking the business licenses or operating licenses of such entities;

shutting down our servers or blocking our website or our mobile application, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs;

imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs, or imposing other requirements with which we or our VIEs may not be able to comply;

requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and deregistering the equity pledge of our VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our VIEs; or

restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of our the Global Offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.
Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of our VIEs that most significantly impact their economic performance, or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our VIEs, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
If we exercise the option to acquire equity ownership of our VIE, the ownership transfer may subject us to certain limitations and substantial costs.
Pursuant to the Provisions on Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, the ultimate foreign equity ownership in a value- added telecommunications services provider cannot exceed 50%. In addition, the main foreign investor who invests in a value-added telecommunications business in China must possess prior experience in operating value-added telecommunications businesses and a proven track record of business operations in such industry, or the Qualification Requirements. Currently, none of the applicable PRC laws, regulations, or rules provides clear guidance or interpretation on the Qualification Requirements. Although we have taken many measures to meet the Qualification Requirements, we still face the risk of not satisfying the requirements promptly. If the PRC laws were revised to allow foreign investors to hold more than 50% of the equity interests of value-added telecommunications enterprises, we might be unable to unwind the Contractual Arrangements before we are able to comply with the Qualification Requirements, or if we attempt to unwind the Contractual Arrangements before we are able to comply with the Qualification Requirements, we may be ineligible to operate our value-added telecommunication enterprises and may be forced to suspend their operations, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
 
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Pursuant to the Contractual Arrangements, Wheels Technology or its designated person has the exclusive right to purchase all or part of the equity interests in our consolidated VIEs at the lower of the amount of their respective paid-in capital in the consolidated VIE and the lowest price permitted under applicable PRC laws. Subject to relevant laws and regulations, the shareholders of our consolidated VIEs shall return any amount of purchase price they have received to Wheels Technology. If such a transfer takes place, the relevant tax authority may ask Wheels Technology to pay enterprise income tax for ownership transfer income with reference to the market value, in which case the amount of tax could be substantial.
RISKS RELATING TO DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on automotive as well as internet-related businesses and companies.
We operate in highly regulated industries. In particular, our vehicle manufacturing is subject to extensive regulations in China. See “Regulations—Regulations and Approvals Covering the Manufacturing of Battery Electric Passenger Vehicles,” “Regulations—Regulations on Compulsory Product Certification,” “Regulations—Regulations on Automobile Sales,” and “Regulations—Regulations on the Recall of Defective Automobiles.” Several PRC regulatory authorities, such as the SAMR, the NDRC, the MIIT, and the Ministry of Commerce, oversee different aspects of our operations, including but not limited to:

assessment of vehicle manufacturing enterprises;

market admission of NEVs;

compulsory product certification;

direct sales model;

product liabilities;

sales of vehicle;

environmental protection system; and

work safety and occupational health requirements.
We are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits, and registrations in connection with our operations as well as to follow multiple mandatory standards or technical norms in our manufacturing and our vehicles. However, the interpretation of these regulations may change and new regulations may come into effect, which could disrupt or restrict our operations, reduce our competitiveness, or result in substantial compliance costs. For example, pursuant to the Administrative Rules on the Admission of New Energy Vehicle Manufacturers and Products which was promulgated by the MIIT in January 2017 and amended in July 2020, our vehicles must meet the requirements set forth in the New Energy Vehicle Products Special Examination Project and Standards stipulated and amended by the MIIT from time to time based on the development of the NEV industry and relevant standards. In addition, certain filings must be made by automobile dealers through the information system for the national automobile circulation operated by the relevant commerce department within 90 days after the receipt of a business license and the information must be updated within 30 days after the change of basic information recorded. Our direct sales model is relatively new and uncommon in the automotive industry, and there can be no assurance that this model will not be subject to further regulations. As we are expanding our sales and distribution network and setting up additional retail stores in China, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete such filings in a timely manner. If any of our current or future sales subsidiaries or branches fail to make the necessary filings, such sales subsidiaries or branches may be subject to orders to promptly rectify the non-compliance or fines up to RMB10,000.
 
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Furthermore, the NEV industry is relatively new in China, and the PRC government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework to regulate the industry yet. As some of the laws, rules, and regulations that we may be subject to were primarily enacted with a view toward application to ICE vehicles, or are relatively new, there are significant uncertainties regarding their interpretation and application with respect to our business. For example, although the Provisions on Administration of Investment in Automotive Industry promulgated by the NDRC on December 10, 2018 has categorized our vehicles as electric vehicles, it remains unclear when our vehicles would be deemed as electric vehicles that exempt from the license plate lottery system for ICE vehicles in Beijing by the local authorities. In addition, on November 25, 2020, the SAMR issued a circular to regulate the recall of defective automobiles with over-the-air, or OTA, technology. The circular provides that automakers that provide technical services through OTA are required to complete filing with the SAMR and those who have provided such services through OTA must complete such filing before December 31, 2020. We cannot assure you that we have satisfied or will continue to satisfy all of the laws, rules, and regulations in the timely manner or at all.
The PRC regulatory authorities’ interpretation of such laws, rules, and regulations may change, which could materially and adversely affect the validity of the approvals, qualifications, licenses, permits, and registrations we obtained or completed. Any failure to comply may result in fines, restrictions, and limits on our operations, as well as suspension or revocation of certain certificates, approvals, permits, licenses, or filings we have already obtained or made.
In addition, the PRC government imposes foreign ownership restriction and the licensing and permit requirements for companies in the internet industry. See “Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” and “Regulations—Regulations on Value-added Telecommunications Services.” These laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations.
We do not directly conduct such business due to the restrictions on foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunications services in China and we rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs to operate value-added telecommunications services. Beijing CLX currently holds an ICP License and a Value-Added Telecommunication Business Operating License for information service (excluding internet information service). Our VIEs may be required to obtain additional licenses or permits for certain services carried out by us through our mobile application or to update our exiting licenses or permits. Failure to obtain or update such license may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other adverse impacts on us.
Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.
The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including Hong Kong dollars and the U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against Hong Kong dollars and the U.S. dollars, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of Renminbi against Hong Kong dollars, the U.S. dollars and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against Hong Kong dollars and the U.S. dollars in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollars in the future.
There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to adopt a more flexible currency policy. Any significant appreciation or depreciation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our
 
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Class A ordinary shares or ADSs in foreign currency. For example, to the extent that we need to convert Hong Kong dollars we receive from the Global Offering into Renminbi to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of Renminbi against the U.S. dollars would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of Renminbi against Hong Kong dollars and the U.S. dollars may significantly reduce Hong Kong dollars and the U.S. dollars equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs.
Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. We enter into hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk when we deem appropriate. While we may decide to enter into further hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.
China’s M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for certain acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.
A number of PRC laws and regulations have established procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time consuming and complex. In addition to the Anti-monopoly Law itself, these include the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on Implementation of Security Review System of Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Security Review Rules, promulgated in 2011. These laws and regulations impose requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. In addition, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the anti-monopoly enforcement agency be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. On February 7, 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council published the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for the Internet Platform Economy Sector, which stipulates that any concentration of undertakings involving variable interest entities is subject to anti-monopoly review. Moreover, the Security Review Rules specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and prohibit any attempt to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. On December 19, 2020, the NDRC and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued the Measures for the Security Review for Foreign Investment, which took effect on January 18, 2021. These measures set forth the provisions concerning the security review mechanism on foreign investment, including, among others, the types of investments subject to review, and the review scopes and procedures. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the Ministry of Commerce and other PRC government authorities, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.
The approval of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval.
The M&A Rules requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC persons or entities to obtain the
 
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approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear, and this offering may ultimately require approval of the CSRC. If the CSRC approval is required, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain the approval and, even if we obtain such CSRC approval, such CSRC approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining the CSRC approval for this offering, or a rescission of such CSRC approval if obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our PRC Legal Advisor has advised us that, based on its understanding of the current PRC laws and regulations, we will not be required to submit an application to the CSRC for the approval of the listing and trading of our Class A ordinary shares because (i) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours under this prospectus are subject to this regulation, (ii) our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries were not established through a merger or requisition of the equity or assets of a “PRC domestic company” as such term is defined under the M&A Rules, and (iii) no provision in this regulation clearly classifies contractual arrangements as a type of transaction subject to its regulation. However, we cannot assure you that relevant PRC government authorities, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC Legal Advisor. If it is determined that the CSRC approval is required for this offering, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities. Recently, the relevant PRC government authorities issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As these opinions are recently issued, official guidance and related implementation rules have not been issued yet and the interpretation of these opinions remains unclear at this stage. We cannot assure you that any new rules or regulations promulgated in the future will not impose additional requirements on us. If it is determined in the future that approval from the CSRC or other regulatory authorities or other procedures are required for this offering, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain such approval or complete such procedures and any such approval or completion could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval or completing such procedures for this offering, or a rescission of any such approval if obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities for failure to seek CSRC approval or other government authorization for this offering. These regulatory authorities may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects, as well as the trading price of our shares. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before settlement and delivery of the shares offered hereby. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for this offering, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirement could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, reputation, and the trading price of the shares.
 
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Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.
The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. According to the HFCA Act, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.
Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this prospectus, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB.
On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above.
The SEC may propose additional regulatory or legislative requirements or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfill its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.
The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA Act and to address the recommendations in the PWG report. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its rulemaking and when such rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible regulation in addition the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of our ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.
The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ordinary shares or ADSs are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.
 
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In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB in China or by the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in China of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR SHARES AND ADSS
The trading price of our ADSs has been and may be, and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares can be, volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.
The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile since our ADSs started to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select market, and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. The trading price of our Class A ordinary shares, likewise, can be volatile for similar or different reasons. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in Hong Kong or the United States. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility, including price declines in connection with their public offerings. The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in Hong Kong or the United States in general and consequently may impact the trading performance of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance.
In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

variations in our revenues, earnings and cash flow;

announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;

announcements of new services and expansions by us or our competitors;

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

detrimental adverse publicity about us, our services or our industry;

additions or departures of key personnel;

release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

actual or potential litigation or regulatory investigations; and

regulatory developments affecting us, our users, suppliers, or our industry.
Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs will trade.
In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is
 
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successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may view as beneficial.
Pursuant to our existing Articles, our authorized and issued ordinary shares consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares (with certain shares remaining undesignated, with power for our directors to designate and issue such classes of shares as they think fit). In respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares vote together as a single class except as may otherwise be required by law, and holders of Class A ordinary shares will be entitled to one vote per share while holders of Class B ordinary shares will be entitled to ten votes per share. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon (i) any direct or indirect sale, transfer, assignment, or disposition of Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity that is not an affiliate of Mr. Li Xiang, or (ii) the direct or indirect sale, transfer, assignment, or disposition of a majority of the issued and outstanding voting securities of, or the direct or indirect transfer or assignment of the voting power attached to such voting securities through voting proxy or otherwise, or the direct or indirect sale, transfer, assignment, or disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of, a holder of Class B ordinary shares that is an entity to any person that is not an affiliate of Mr. Li Xiang, such Class B ordinary shares are automatically and immediately converted into an equal number of Class A ordinary shares.
Immediately following the completion of the Global Offering, Mr. Li Xiang, our chairman and chief executive officer, beneficially owned 355,812,080 Class B ordinary shares and 108,557,400 CEO Award Shares (which are Class A Ordinary Shares with one vote per share), representing 69.59% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding ordinary shares assuming none of the performance-based conditions is met and no award premium is paid in respect of all CEO Award Shares and without taking into account the voting rights attached to the 32,957,578 Class A Ordinary Shares (as of the Latest Practicable Date) issued to the Depositary for bulk issuance of ADSs reserved for future issuances upon the exercise or vesting of awards granted under the Share Incentive Plans, due to the disparate voting powers associated with our dual-class voting structure. See “Substantial Shareholders” and “Relationship with the Controlling Shareholders—Controlling Shareholders.” Mr. Li will continue to have considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, such as electing directors and approving material mergers, acquisitions, or other business combination transactions. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our company, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover, or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may view as beneficial.
Certain principal shareholders have substantial influence over our key corporate matters and will continue to have such influence following the Global Offering.
Certain principal shareholders of our company have certain special rights with respect to our key corporate matters, in addition to voting power based on beneficial ownership in our company. Pursuant to our fourth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, Amp Lee Ltd., an entity beneficially owned by Mr. Li Xiang, our chairman and chief executive officer, is entitled to appoint, remove, and replace at least one director as well as to appoint the chairman of the Board, subject to certain conditions. Pursuant to an investor rights agreement dated July 9, 2020 with Inspired Elite
 
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Investments Limited, our shareholder and a wholly owned subsidiary of Meituan, Inspired Elite Investments Limited and certain related entities are entitled to a series of special rights, including the right to appoint, remove, and replace one director, certain consent rights, and right of first refusal on change of control. These special rights enable these principal shareholders to have substantial influence over our key corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transaction that holders of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may view as beneficial. The Company will put forth a resolution at the First GM to remove from its Articles the aforementioned special right of Amp Lee Ltd. and will, prior to the Listing, irrevocably undertake to the Stock Exchange to treat such special rights as terminated upon the Listing and before the existing Articles are formally amended. See “Waivers and Exemptions—Requirements relating to the Articles of Association of the Company”. The special rights, except the right of first refusal on change of control, of Inspired Elite Investments Limited and certain related entities will be automatically terminated upon the Listing. See “History, Reorganization and Corporate Structure—Investor Rights Agreement.”
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs to decline.
The sale or availability for sale of a substantial amount of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs could adversely affect their market price.
Sales of a substantial amount of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. Shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs.
Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after the Global Offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs for return on your investment.
We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after the Global Offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.
Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Our shareholders may also by ordinary resolution declare dividends, but no dividend shall exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiary, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of
 
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our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs. There is no guarantee that our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the Class A ordinary shares or ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs.
We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from the Global Offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree.
We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of the Global Offering, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of the Global Offering. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a manner that will improve our results of operations or increase our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs price, nor that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.
Our fourth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association give us power to take certain actions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us, which could limit our shareholders’ opportunity to sell their shares, including Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs, at a premium.
Our fourth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association give us power to take certain actions that could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our Class A ordinary shares, in the form of ADSs or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. However, our exercise of any such power that may limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions under the Articles after the Global Offering will be subject to our overriding obligations to comply with all applicable Hong Kong laws and regulations, the Listing Rules, and the Codes on Takeovers and Mergers and Share Buy-backs. We will, at the first general meeting to be convened in or before January 2022, propose to our shareholders certain amendments to our Articles, including removing the Directors’ discretion to, for the purpose of variation of rights attached to any class of shares, treat all the Classes or any two or more Classes as forming one Class if they consider that all such Classes would be affected in the same way by the proposals under consideration under article 19 of the existing Articles, the Directors’ powers to authorize the division of Shares into any number of classes and to determine the relative rights and obligations as between the different classes and to issue such shares with preferred or other rights that may be greater than the rights of the Class A Ordinary Shares under article 9 of the existing Articles, as well as making the Directors’ powers to issue preferred shares under article 9 of the existing Articles to be subject to the Articles, compliance with the Listing Rules and the Takeovers Code and the conditions that (i) no new class of shares with voting rights superior to those of Class A Ordinary Shares will be created and (ii) any variations in the relative rights as between the different classes will not result in creating new class of shares with voting rights superior to those of Class A Ordinary Shares (together, the “Amendment of Directors’ Class Right Related Powers”). For a more detailed discussion on the proposed amendments to our Articles, see “Waivers and Exemptions—Requirements Relating to the Articles of Association of the Company.”
 
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You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through Hong Kong or U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our fourth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in Hong Kong or some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than Hong Kong or the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a Hong Kong court or a federal court of the United States.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than copies of the memorandum and articles of association, the register of mortgages and charges, and any special resolutions passed by the shareholders) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as Hong Kong or the United States. If we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.
As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in Hong Kong or the United States.
Your investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs may be impacted if we are encouraged to issue CDRs in the future.
PRC government authorities have issued new rules that allow PRC technology companies listed outside China to list on the mainland stock market through the creation of Chinese Depositary Receipts, or CDRs. However, as the CDR mechanism is newly established, there are substantial uncertainties in the interpretation and implementation of these rules. We might consider and be encouraged by the evolving PRC governmental policies to issue CDRs and allow investors to trade our CDRs on PRC stock exchanges in the future. However, there are uncertainties as to whether a pursuit of CDRs in China would bring positive or negative impact on your investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs.
The conversion of the 2028 Notes or any convertible notes that we may issue in the future may dilute the ownership interest of the existing shareholders and existing ADS holders, including holders who had previously converted their notes.
We issued US$862.5 million 0.25% convertible senior notes due 2028 in April 2021, which may be converted, at an initial conversion rate of 35.2818 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of notes (which
 
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represents an initial conversion price of US$28.34 per ADS) at each holder’s option at any time on or after November 1, 2027, until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date of May 1, 2028, or at the option of the holders upon satisfaction of certain conditions and during certain periods prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding November 1, 2027. As the conversion of the 2028 Notes may take place anytime during such periods if the relevant conditions are fulfilled, the conversion of the 2028 Notes and any convertible notes that we may issue in the future will dilute the ownership interests of existing shareholders and existing ADS holders. Any sales in the public market of the ADSs issuable upon such conversion may increase the opportunities to create short positions with respect to the ADSs, which could adversely affect prevailing trading prices of our ADSs. In addition, the existence of such convertible notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of such notes could depress the price of our ADSs. The price of our ADSs could be affected by possible sales of our ADSs by investors who view the convertible notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in us and by hedging or arbitrage trading activity, which we expect to occur involving our ADSs.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversion of the notes in cash, to repurchase the notes upon a fundamental change, to repurchase notes on May 1, 2024 and May 1, 2026, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or to repurchase the notes.
Holders of the 2028 Notes have the right to require us to repurchase their notes on May 1, 2024 and May 1, 2026 or upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture), in each case, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. We may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of the notes surrendered therefor or to settle the notes being converted. Our failure to repurchase the notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture governing the notes or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the notes as required by the indenture governing the notes would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or a fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing any of our future indebtedness outstanding at the time. If the repayment of any outstanding future indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.
Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs.
Short selling is the practice of selling securities that a seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions regarding relevant issuers and their business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling securities short.
Public companies listed in the United States that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity has centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits or SEC enforcement actions.
 
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It is not clear what effect such negative publicity could have on us. If we were to become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we could have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable state law, or issues of commercial confidentiality. Such a situation could be costly and time-consuming and could distract our management from growing our business. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact our business operations and shareholders’ equity, and any investment in our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs could be greatly reduced or rendered worthless.
Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.
We are a Cayman Islands company and the majority of our assets are located outside of Hong Kong or the United States. Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China. In addition, most of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than Hong Kong or the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons may be located outside Hong Kong or the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in Hong Kong or the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under Hong Kong laws, the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.
RISKS RELATING TO THE GLOBAL OFFERING AND THE DUAL LISTING
An active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange might not develop or be sustained and trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares might fluctuate significantly.
Following the completion of the Global Offering, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will develop or be sustained. The trading price or liquidity for our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Select Market might not be indicative of those of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange following the completion of the Global Offering. If an active trading market of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange does not develop or is not sustained after the Global Offering, the market price and liquidity of our Class A ordinary shares could be materially and adversely affected.
In 2014, the Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Shenzhen stock exchanges collaborated to create an inter-exchange trading mechanism called Stock Connect that allows international and PRC investors to trade eligible equity securities listed in each other’s markets through the trading and clearing facilities of their home exchange. Stock Connect currently covers over 2,000 equity securities trading in the Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Shenzhen markets. Stock Connect allows PRC investors to trade directly in eligible equity securities listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, known as Southbound Trading; without Stock Connect, PRC investors would not otherwise have a direct and established means of engaging in Southbound Trading. In October 2019, the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges separately announced their amended implementation rules in connection with Southbound Trading to include shares of WVR companies to be traded through Stock Connect. However, since these rules are relatively new, there remains uncertainty as to the implementation details, especially with respect to shares of those companies with a secondary or dual-primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. It is unclear whether and when the Class A ordinary shares of our Company, a WVR company with a dual-primarily listing in Hong Kong upon the Listing, will be eligible to be traded through Stock Connect, if at all. The ineligibility or any delay of our Class A ordinary shares for trading through Stock Connect will affect PRC investors’ ability to trade our Class A ordinary shares and therefore may limit the liquidity of the trading of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
 
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Since there will be a gap of several days between pricing and trading of our Class A ordinary shares, the price of our ADSs traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may fall during this period and could result in a fall in the price of our Class A ordinary shares to be traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
The pricing of the Offer Shares will be determined on the Price Determination Date. However, our Class A ordinary shares will not commence trading on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange until they are delivered, which is expected to be about four Hong Kong business days after the Price Determination Date. As a result, investors may not be able to sell or otherwise deal in our Class A ordinary shares during that period. Accordingly, holders of our Class A ordinary shares are subject to the risk that the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares could fall when trading commences as a result of adverse market conditions or other adverse developments that could occur between the Price Determination Date and the time trading begins. In particular, as our ADSs will continue to be traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and their price can be volatile, any fall in the price of our ADSs may result in a fall in the price of our Class A ordinary shares to be traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
The characteristics of the U.S. capital markets and the Hong Kong capital markets are different.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange have different trading hours, trading characteristics (including trading volume and liquidity), trading and listing rules, and investor bases (including different levels of retail and institutional participation). As a result of these differences, the trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs representing them might not be the same, even allowing for currency differences. Fluctuations in the price of the ADSs due to circumstances peculiar to its home capital market could materially and adversely affect the price of the Class A ordinary shares. Because of the different characteristics of the U.S. and Hong Kong equity markets, the historic market prices of the ADSs may not be indicative of the performance of our securities (including the ordinary shares) after the Global Offering.
Exchange between our Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs may adversely affect the liquidity or trading price of each other.
The ADSs are currently traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Subject to compliance with U.S. securities laws and the terms of the deposit agreement, holders of our Class A ordinary shares may deposit Class A ordinary shares with the depositary in exchange for the issuance of the ADSs. Any holder of ADSs may also withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement for trading on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In the event that a substantial number of Class A ordinary shares are deposited with the depositary in exchange for ADSs or vice versa, the liquidity and trading price of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may be adversely affected.
The time required for the exchange between our Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs might be longer than expected and investors might not be able to settle or effect any sale of their securities during this period, and the exchange of Class A ordinary shares into ADSs involves costs.
There is no direct trading or settlement between the Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on which the ADSs and our Class A ordinary shares are respectively traded. In addition, the time differences between Hong Kong and New York, unforeseen market circumstances, or other factors may delay the deposit of Class A ordinary shares in exchange for the ADSs or the withdrawal of Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Investors will be prevented from settling or effecting the sale of their securities during such periods of delay. In addition, we cannot assure you that any exchange for Class A ordinary shares into ADSs (and vice versa) will be completed in accordance with the timelines that investors may anticipate.
Furthermore, the depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services including for the issuance of ADSs upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares, cancelation of ADSs,
 
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distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs, and annual service fees. As a result, shareholders who exchange Class A ordinary shares into ADSs, and vice versa, may not achieve the level of economic return the shareholders may anticipate.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
Companies that have experienced volatility in the volume and market price of their shares have been subject to an increased incidence of securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, and, if adversely determined, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As the public offering price is substantially higher than our net tangible book value per ordinary share, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution.
If you purchase ordinary shares in the Global Offering, you will pay more for your Class A ordinary shares than the amount paid by existing holders for their Class A ordinary shares or ADSs on a per ordinary share basis. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution after giving effect to the Global Offering. In addition, you will experience further dilution to the extent that our ordinary shares are issued upon the exercise of share options or vesting of restricted share units. All of the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently outstanding share options will be issued at a purchase price on a per ordinary share basis that is less than the public offering price per ordinary share in the Global Offering.
 
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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
The following section sets forth new information and statistics relating to the industry in which we operate. Such information and statistics were extracted from different official government publications, available sources from public market research, and other sources from independent suppliers.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
We commissioned CIC, an independent market research and consulting company that provides industry consulting services, commercial due diligence, and strategic consulting to conduct a detailed research on and analysis of the NEV market in China. We have agreed to pay a fee of US$100,000 to CIC in connection with the preparation of the CIC Report. We have extracted certain information from the CIC Report in this section, as well as in “Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Business,” “Financial Information,” and elsewhere in this document to provide our potential investors with a more comprehensive presentation of the industries where we operate.
During the preparation of the CIC Report, CIC performed both primary and secondary research, and obtained knowledge, statistics, information, and industry insights on the industry trends of the NEV market in China. Primary research was conducted via interviews with key industry experts and leading industry participants. Secondary research involved analyzing data from various publicly available data sources, such as the PRC National Bureau of Statistics and various industry associations. The information and data collected by CIC has been analyzed, assessed, and validated using CIC’s in-house analysis models and techniques.
The CIC Report was compiled based on the following assumptions: (i) the overall social, economic, and political environment in China is expected to remain stable during the forecast period, (ii) the relevant key industry drivers are likely to propel continued growth in China’s NEV market throughout the forecast period, including increasing disposable income of consumers, favorable policies and incentives that promote sales of NEVs, and wider acceptance of NEVs, and (iii) there will be no extreme unforeseen events, including regulations and government policies, which may materially affect the market during the forecast period.
OVERVIEW OF CHINA’S PASSENGER VEHICLE MARKET
China has been the world’s largest passenger vehicle market as measured by sales volume since 2009. Driven by economic growth and increasing urbanization, China’s passenger vehicle sales volume reached 20.8 million in 2020. Nevertheless, according to the CIC Report, private car parc penetration rate in China was only 20.0% in 2020, compared to 59.2% in the United States in 2020. Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, China’s passenger vehicle market greatly contracted in the first half of 2020. Benefited from various effective measures rolled out by the PRC government, the passenger vehicle sales volume picked up in the second half of 2020. Overall, the sales volume of passenger vehicle in China decreased by 6.3% from 2019 to 2020. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.0% from 2020 to 2025, higher than the expected CAGR of 3.3% for the world’s passenger vehicle market over the same period, according to the CIC Report.
 
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Passenger Vehicle Sales Volume in China by Energy Type (2016A-2025E)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-bc_vehicsal4c.jpg]
Note:
HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) is a kind of passenger vehicle that can use both traditional internal combustion engine and electric motor as power source. According to the New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan, HEV is not a subset of NEV and it cannot enjoy NEV benefits such as license plate policies, purchase tax exemption, subsidies, and vehicle credit policies.
OVERVIEW OF CHINA’S NEV MARKET
Categories of NEVs
Based on the New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035), the PRC government categorizes NEVs into BEVs, PHEVs (including EREVs), and FCEVs. EREVs are distinct from PHEVs because EREVs are only propelled by electric motors on a full-time basis while PHEVs are primarily propelled by engines and are only propelled by electric motors on an on-demand basis. Compared to a PHEV, an EREV is equipped with a much larger battery pack to support a much longer purely electrically powered range, which is sufficient to provide users with a BEV-like, zero-emission experience in an urban commuting scenario. Furthermore, unlike a PHEV that needs to switch between engine drive and electric motor drive, an EREV delivers superior, consistent driving experience, smoother acceleration, and better NVH performance. However, as mass consumers are not familiar with EREV technology, it requires higher educational costs for marketing and promotion purpose. Currently, there is no volume production of FCEVs in China’s passenger vehicle market as there are various obstacles in FCEV technology development and commercialization in the passenger vehicle market. The FCEV technology is applied in limited scale in certain heavy-duty trucks and buses for commercial use. As it is expected to take considerable time to clear the obstacles in FCEV technology development and commercialization in the passenger vehicle market, no material growth of the FCEV sales in China’s passenger vehicle market is expected in the foreseeable future.
High Growth Potential
China has become the world’s largest NEV market. In recent years, the growth of NEV sales volume has surpassed that of the ICE vehicles in China. According to the CIC Report, the NEV sales volume in China increased from 0.3 million vehicles in 2016 to 1.2 million vehicles in 2020, representing a CAGR of 41.7%. In 2020, the NEV sales volume only accounted for 5.8% of the total passenger vehicle sales volume, indicating massive future growth potential. The New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035) issued by the MIIT in October 2020 has set China’s target NEV sales volume to be around 20% of total vehicle sales volume by 2025. According to the Technology Roadmap for Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicles 2.0 issued by China Society of Automotive Engineers, the proportion
 
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of NEV sales out of the total vehicle sales will rise to approximately 40% by 2030. In 2035, NEVs will account for over 50% of the total vehicle sales. Driven by favorable policies, evolving vehicle technology, and rapid battery cost reduction, as well as wider consumer acceptance of NEVs resulting from better understanding and increasing demand for intelligent technology and connectivity, the NEV sales volume in China is expected to continue to grow at a CAGR of 35.8% from 2020 to 2025, according to the CIC Report.
The following diagram illustrates the NEV sales volume in China for the periods indicated. The sales volume of FCEV is omitted as no material growth of the FCEV sales in China’s passenger vehicle market is expected in the foreseeable future.
NEV Sales Volume in China by Energy Type (2016A-2025E)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-bc_salesvolu4c.jpg]
Source: CPCA, CIC
Main Drivers of China’s NEV Market
Favorable Policies
In order to reduce pollution, improve energy security, and revive domestic automotive industry, the PRC government has introduced numerous policies to accelerate the development of the NEV industry. The key incentive policies for the NEV industry include reduced taxes, direct subsidies to automakers, consumer subsidies, mandated government procurements, and industry development plans. In addition, a dual-credit policy has been introduced to encourage automakers to produce more NEVs and fewer ICE vehicles such that the production of NEVs helps automakers to earn positive credits. Automakers are required to reach a threshold of credits each year, the failure of which will result in the suspension of the registration, or even the production, of those vehicles with high fuel consumption. In practice, automakers with insufficient credits will generally purchase the credits from other automakers for failure to reach the threshold. At the same time, in several major cities with license plate restrictions, the threshold for NEVs to obtain license plates has been lowered.
Development of Battery Technology and Intelligent Vehicle Technology
The development of power battery technology and the reduction of battery cost will significantly drive the development of the NEV market. As power battery technology advances, the battery mileage and charging efficiency of NEVs will improve, resulting in consumers’ increasing interest in buying NEVs. In addition, the reduction of battery cost will further narrow down the price gap between NEVs and ICE
 
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vehicles with comparable configurations rendering NEVs an economically viable choice for more consumers. Moreover, NEVs are believed to be the best carriers of intelligent technologies and are expected to transform into smart products controlled by intelligent systems, from simple transportation tools to “intelligent mobile spaces.” Intelligent connectivity will bring new development opportunities for NEVs in the automotive revolution.
Consumer Awareness and Acceptance of NEVs
As more competitors introduce NEVs, consumers are paying more attention to and becoming more willing to embrace NEVs. Compared to ICE vehicles, NEVs have lower cost of energy replenishment and enjoy favorable policies and subsidies, which attract an increasing number of consumers to switch from ICE vehicles to NEVs. In addition, consumer preference to intelligence and connectivity and user-centric design helps enhance consumers’ acceptance of NEVs. Furthermore, an expanding coverage of charging infrastructure nationwide improves the driving experience and reduces the range anxiety of NEV consumers, and the improving energy efficiency of NEVs and the associated declining driving costs also contribute to the consumers’ increasing acceptance of NEVs.
Value Chain of China’s NEV Market
The value chain of the automotive industry includes raw material suppliers, auto part manufacturers, automakers, and sales and after-sales services. Compared with the ICE automakers, the NEV automakers require additional suppliers related to power batteries and intelligent solutions in its supplier system. In addition, NEV automakers have built up direct sales and servicing network to improve operating efficiency on top of the traditional dealership model. Besides maintenance and repair, auto finance, used car trading, and after-sales services for both ICE automakers and NEV automakers, NEV automakers are also required to provide charging, battery swap, and other value-added services.
The following diagram illustrates the value chain of China’s NEV Market. The Company serves as an automaker in the value chain, and provides direct sales and after-sales services.
Value Chain of China’s NEV Market (2020)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-tbl_valuchai4c.jpg]
Source: CIC
Competitive Landscape of China’s NEV Market
In 2020, there were 131 automobile brands with passenger vehicles delivered in China. The passenger vehicle market in China was relatively fragmented, with the top 5 automobile brands
 
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accounting for 39.3% of the total sales volume in 2020. China’s total NEV sales volume 2020 were accounted for by 288 NEV models or 77 NEV brands. The production of Li ONE commenced in November 2019. In 2020, Li ONE was the best-selling new energy SUV, which is the only EREV among the top 10 best-selling new energy SUVs, and was the sixth best-selling NEV.
The following table set forth the ranking of NEV brands in terms of sales volume in 2020.
Ranking
Company
Sales Volume(1) (Vehicles)
Market Share(2)
1 Company E
179,054
14.9%
2 Company A
144,389
12.0%
3 Company F
119,255
9.9%
4 Company G
66,861
5.6%
5 Company H
57,565
4.8%
6 Company I
55,441
4.6%
7 Company J
47,848
4.0%
8 Company K
46,354
3.9%
9 Company B
43,728
3.6%
10 Company L
43,019
3.6%
11 Li Auto
32,624
2.7%
12 Company M
31,473
2.6%
13 Company N
29,035
2.4%
14 Company C
27,006
2.2%
15 Company O
25,230
2.1%
Source: CPCA,CIC
Notes:
(1)
The sales volume refers to wholesale volume.
(2)
The market share is calculated as wholesale volume divided by total NEV sales volume.
Since 2014, a number of emerging automakers entered the market specializing in manufacturing NEVs. As of December 31, 2020, there were 12 NEV automakers that solely manufacture NEVs. Among these automakers, Li Auto ranked the third in terms of sales volume in 2020.
The following table sets forth the ranking of automakers that solely manufacture NEVs in terms of sales volume in 2020.
Ranking
Company
Listing Status
Sales Volume(1) (Vehicles)
Market Share(2)
1
Company A(3) Listed
144,389
12.0%
2
Company B(4) Listed
43,728
3.6%
3 Li Auto Listed
32,624
2.7%
4
Company C(5) Listed
27,006
2.2%
5
Company D(6) Private
22,495
1.9%
Source: CPCA, CIC
Notes:
(1)
The sales volume refers to wholesale volume.
(2)
The market share is calculated as wholesale volume divided by total NEV vehicle sales volume.
(3)
Established in 2003, Company A is a BEV automaker and clean energy company based in California, United States. Company A had delivered three models in China as of December 31, 2020.
 
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(4)
Established in 2014, Company B is a BEV automaker headquartered in Shanghai, China. Company B had delivered three models in China as of December 31, 2020.
(5)
Established in 2014, Company C is a BEV automaker headquartered in Guangzhou, China. Company C had delivered two models in China as of December 31, 2020.
(6)
Established in 2015, Company D is a BEV automaker headquartered in Shanghai, China. Company D had delivered two models in China as of December 31, 2020.
As of December 31, 2020, there were two EREV models delivered in China and Li ONE ranked the first in terms of sales volume. Li ONE is the first successfully commercialized EREV in China and defines a new market segment in China with huge growth potential. Automakers will have to commit significant capital to manufacture EREVs because an existing ICE vehicle platform would not easily accommodate a range extension system, a battery, and an electric motor. In addition, engineers will have to optimize the vehicle NVH performance, improve smoothness when switching between different driving modes of the powertrain, and enhance energy efficiency.
The following table sets forth the ranking of NEVs in terms of sales volume in 2020.
Top 10 NEVs
(in terms of sales volume in 2020)
Ranking
Model
Energy Type
MSRP
(RMB in
thousands)
Sales
Volume(1)
(Vehicles)
Market
Share(2)
1
TESLA Model 3 BEV
265.7-419.8
140,311
11.7%
2
Wuling Hongguang Mini EV
BEV
28.8-43.6
115,544
9.6%
3
Aion S BEV
139.8-205.8
54,759
4.6%
4
ORA R1 BEV
69.8-84.8
44,683
3.7%
5
Chery eQ1 BEV
66.8-73.8
35,630
3.0%
6 Li ONE EREV
328.0
33,457
2.8%
7
BYD Qin EV BEV
129.9-174.8
31,653
2.6%
8
NIO ES6 BEV
358.0-526.0
27,832
2.3%
9
Baojun E100 BEV
49.8-54.8
24,504
2.0%
10
BMW 5 Series PHEV
499.9-536.9
24,169
2.0%
Source: CPCA, CIC
Notes:
(1)
The sales volume refers to retail sales volume.
(2)
The market share is calculated as retail sales volume divided by total NEV sales volume.
 
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The following table sets forth the ranking of new energy SUVs in terms of sales volume in 2020.
Top 10 New Energy SUVs
(in terms of sales volume in 2020)
Ranking
Model
Energy Type
Sales Volume(1) (Vehicles)
Market Share(2)
1 Li ONE EREV
33,457
9.7%
2
NIO ES6 BEV
27,832
8.0%
3
WM EX5 BEV
16,860
4.9%
4
BYD Tang DM PHEV
15,549
4.5%
5
BYD Yuan EV BEV
12,356
3.6%
6
XPENG G3 BEV
11,996
3.5%
7
NIO ES8 BEV
10,795
3.1%
8
VOLKSWAGEN Tiguan PHEV
9,504
2.7%
9
NETA N01 BEV
7,307
2.1%
10
ROEWE RX5 PHEV
7,140
2.1%
Source: CPCA, CIC
Notes:
(1)
The sales volume refers to retail sales volume.
(2)
The market share is calculated as retail sales volume divided by total new energy SUV sales volume.
Entry Barriers of China’s NEV Market
Initial Capital Investment
China’s NEV market is capital intensive. NEV automakers have to inject significant capital in technology research, vehicle manufacturing, marketing, and infrastructure construction. To eliminate obsolete production capacity in the NEV market, the Administrative Regulations on Investment in the Automotive Industry issued on December 10, 2018 stipulated that new BEV projects should have a production capacity exceeding 100,000 passenger vehicles or 5,000 commercial vehicles.
Technology Capability
Technology capability to self-develop vehicle platforms is one of the entry barriers as the successful development of such a platform generally takes at least three years. In addition, the Access Management Rules for New Energy Vehicle Production Enterprises and Products clarifies that NEV automakers should have the ability to design, develop, and manufacture vehicle products while ensuring consistent quality of products and after-sales services.
Well-Established Relationships with Suppliers and Downstream Industries
A well-established cooperative relationship with battery and auto part manufacturers is essential for players in China’s NEV market to ensure a stable supply of raw materials and key components with consistent quality and fair prices. With the increasing attention to intelligence, connectivity, and user-centric design, the upstream NEV industry now also embraces the intelligent technology and includes chip suppliers, sensor suppliers, intelligent infrastructure providers, and in-vehicle application providers. Meanwhile, close cooperation with downstream industries, especially charging services, innovative channels to achieve easy access to consumers, in-vehicle human-machine interaction application operators for driving convenience and enjoyment, and after-sales services such auto finance and auto insurance, will propel future development of an NEV automaker.
 
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Major Cost Components and Cost Trend of NEVs
The key components of NEVs include power system, interior decoration, chassis, and vehicle body. NEVs differ from ICE vehicles in their unique design and structure of their powertrain system, which uses electric motors and motor controllers instead of ICEs for propulsion. PHEVs (including EREVs) eliminate the need for a costly battery of large capacity and the extensive use of lightweight materials typically required for BEVs, effectively reducing the cost. Among the components of the powertrain system, the battery system accounts for the largest part of the BOM cost. For a large battery electric SUV, the battery system accounts for approximately 35% of the BOM cost, and electric motor and motor controller accounts for approximately 7% and 6% of the BOM cost, respectively. The battery system accounts for approximately 20% of the BOM cost for PHEVs. The engine and powertrain of PHEVs accounts for around 15% of the BOM cost.
Battery cost for electric vehicles and stationary battery solutions decreased by over 85% from US$1,100 per kilowatt-hour to US$137 per kilowatt-hour from 2010 to 2020. The average price per kilowatt-hour for batteries is expected to hit US$85 in 2025. The main contributors to the drop in price include the increased production due to sales growth, falling manufacturing costs, the decreasing price of cathode materials, and new pack designs. Underlying material prices will play a larger role in the future, but the introduction of new chemistries, new manufacturing techniques, and simplified pack designs will keep prices falling.
The following diagram illustrates the volume-weighted average battery pack prices in China for the periods indicated.
Volume-Weighted Average Battery Pack Price in China (2016A-2025E)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-lc_pricechin4c.jpg]
Source: CIC
Price Trend of NEVs
The average price of NEVs fluctuated between 2016 and 2020 at a CAGR of 0.7%. As a number of entry and medium level NEV models were released in 2017, and there had been an explosive growth in the sales volume of NEVs priced below RMB300,000, resulting in a sudden drop in average price of NEVs. As the market share of premium models gradually increased after 2017, the average price of NEVs gradually increased thereafter.
 
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The following diagram illustrates the average price trend of NEVs in China for the periods indicated.
Average Price Trend of NEVs in China (2016A-2020A)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-lc_averprice4c.jpg]
Source: CPCA, CIC
The Challenge Facing China’s NEV Market
Among the NEVs, BEVs have been granted the most favorable treatment under the government policies over the past few years and have become the largest segment within the NEV market, accounting for 81.1% of total NEV sales volume in 2020.
The inconvenience of energy replenishment is currently a key constraint for BEV development, which is caused by the inadequate charging infrastructure and long waiting and charging time.

Inadequate Charging Infrastructure. The development of the private charging infrastructure is affected by limited residential parking space in cities with high population density, low percentage of residential parking space suitable for installing home charging stalls, and power grid capacity limits in aged residential areas. As of December 31, 2020, the ratio of residential parking space to car parc was below 1:2 in first-tier cities in China, and fewer than 25% of the families in first-tier cities in China had parking space suitable for installing home charging stalls, compared with over 70% in the United States. As a result, a substantial number of BEV owners in China have to rely on public charging infrastructure.

Public charging stalls can be divided into public slow charging stalls and public fast charging stalls. Generally, public fast charging stalls refer to direct current charging stalls and the time required for a full charge is usually between 30 minutes and 60 minutes. In comparison, public slow charging stalls refer to alternating current charging stalls that would take several hours to fully charge the battery of a BEV. The inadequate charging infrastructure of public charging especially fast charging stall is expected to drive the demand for more reliable energy replenishment solutions such as range extension. As of December 31, 2020, the ratio of NEV parc to public charging stalls is 6.1 to 1, according to the CIC Report. As of December 31, 2020, fast charging stalls only accounted for 38.3% of total public charging stalls, and the ratio of NEV parc to public fast charging stalls was 15.9 to 1.

Long Waiting and Charging Time. Charging a BEV is time-consuming and has always troubled BEV owners as the prevailing fast charging solutions usually take between 30 minutes and 60 minutes to charge a BEV. Considering the additional waiting time, the total time for waiting and
 
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charging is longer than consumers’ expectation and thus causes inconvenience to consumers. In the past few years, leading BEV manufacturers have been focusing on the research and development of charging technologies to reduce the charging time. Europe is developing ultra-fast charging network, which aims to reduce the charging time for a range of 300 kilometers from 1.5 hours to 20 minutes. However, due to limitation by battery power and voltage platform, ultra-fast charging with charging time lower than 15 minutes is still currently inaccessible.
Solutions to Address the Challenge Facing China’s NEV Market
To address the challenge of inconvenient energy replenishment facing China’s NEV market, EREV technology will continue to be a reliable energy replenishment solution as it can be replenished by charging and refueling and thus could completely eliminate range anxiety. In the future, with the introduction and development of ultra-fast charging technology and infrastructure, ultra-fast charging also will be a convenient energy replenishment solution.
A reliable energy replenishment solution with EREV technology
An EREV is an electrically powered vehicle with a fuel-based range extension system. EREVs have a number of features that help address major constraints of the wide adoption of BEVs. EREV technology alleviates an NEV’s dependence on charging infrastructure and extends driving range to eliminate range anxiety. EREV technology is perfectly suitable for large SUVs as their energy can be replenished by slow charging, fast charging, and refueling, and can operate even when consumers have no access to charging infrastructure, thereby eliminating range anxiety.
Energy replenishment by ultra-fast charging
With government policies supporting the construction plan of charging infrastructure and large investment in the construction of charging infrastructure by leading players such as the State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid, the charging infrastructure is expected to improve rapidly over time. The ratio of NEV parc to public charging stalls was 8.7, 7.4, and 6.1 as of December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The ratio of NEV parc to public fast charging stalls was 23.9, 17.7, and 15.9 as of December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. With the continuous investment in charging infrastructure, the ratio of NEV parc to public charging stalls is expected to reach 3:1 by 2025. However, the charging infrastructure currently promoted by the government can only support fast charging solutions with a charging time usually between 30 minutes and 60 minutes due to limitations of the current battery technology and charging network. With the technology development in ultra-fast charging infrastructure and battery, the charging time would further decrease to 10 to 15 minutes after 2023, resulting in increasing popularity and rising sales of BEVs.
OVERVIEW OF CHINA’S EREV MARKET
The EREV technology was first introduced in the early twentieth century, and has been successfully applied in certain overseas markets. For example, the Nissan Note series was the 2018 best-selling passenger vehicle in Japan, achieving a sales volume of 136,000 vehicles in Japan, 65.6% of which were the EREV model, e-Power. The LEVC TX series taxi, another successful EREV introduced in January 2018, has transported over 13 million passengers across Europe and helped taxi drivers save approximately £100 per week.
The total EREV sales volume in China increased from 14 vehicles in 2016 to 33,356 vehicles in 2020, representing a CAGR of 598.7%. The EREV market share in China, calculated as the total EREV sales volume in China divided by the total NEV sales volume in China, increased from 0.005% in 2016 to 2.8% in 2020. Driven by the favorable policies and the advanced propulsion technologies to address the
 
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pain point of range anxiety, it is expected that the sales volume of EREVs will further increase to approximately 403,800 vehicles in 2025.
The following diagram illustrates the EREV sales volume in China for the periods indicated.
EREV Sales Volume in China (2016A-2025E)
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-bc_erevsale4c.jpg]
Source: CIC
The sales volume of EREVs in 2020, largely consisting of the sales volume of Li ONEs, is relatively low mainly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to delay in the production ramp-up, expansion of retail stores, and vehicle delivery and adversely affected the production and deliveries of Li ONEs, especially in the first half of 2020. In addition, the quantity of comparable EREV models in 2020 was limited as the commercialization of EREVs was still in an early stage (Li ONE, as the first successfully commercialized EREV model, started volume production in November 2019). Following the success of Li ONE, other automakers, including Voyah, Seres, Qoros, Nissan, Enovate, and Neta, announced the launch of new EREV models in 2021. These factors have contributed to the reconciliation of the relatively low sales volume of EREVs in 2020 and the forecast of high sales volume in 2025, which represents a CAGR higher than that of the BEV sales volume during the same period.
With our strong product defining capability and continuing investments in intelligent vehicle technologies and autonomous driving solutions, we successfully commercialized EREVs and our EREV sales volume virtually represented the entire sales volume of China’s EREV market in 2020. Based on our EREV development history and our understanding of China’s EREV market, we expect that it generally takes approximately three years for a typical EREV new player to develop a competitive EREV platform. As we will develop and launch more EREV models that cover a wider price range and continue to improve our products and services and enhance user experience and intelligent systems, we believe that our competitive advantage over other EREV players will continue and we will solidify our leadership position in the EREV market in the future.
Main Drivers of China’s EREV Market
Favorable Policies
The production, promotion, and research and development of EREV in the EV industry are encouraged in China by favorable government policies. EREVs are a subset of NEVs and hence can enjoy most of the favorable government incentives and subsidies equivalent to other types of NEVs in
 
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China, such as exemption from vehicle purchase tax, one-time government subsidies, preferred treatment in obtaining and calculating NEV credits, and exemption from license plate restrictions in certain cities except for Shanghai (starting from January 1, 2023) and Beijing as the two cities have high level of car parc. It is uncertain whether any other local government will adopt similar measures in areas other than Beijing and Shanghai such that EREVs will not be considered NEVs exempt from the license plate restrictions, which may adversely affect the attractiveness of EREVs to the extent that the users may not continue to enjoy the favorable policies in light of license plate restrictions. Other favorable government incentives and subsidies for EREVs are expected to be sustainable in the foreseeable future.
Technology Development
The advancement of EREV powertrain and battery technologies drives the development of EREV market, as it optimizes the efficiency and control algorithms of range extension system. The improvement on the technologies enhances the performance of EREVs by providing better NVH performance and driving experience as well as better energy consumption efficiency.
Increasing Preferences for NEVs with Concurrent Demand for Long Distance Travels
The increasing penetration rate of NEVs on the sales of passenger vehicle market indicates the increasing acceptance of NEVs among consumers. However, due to the current inadequate infrastructure and long waiting and charging time, BEVs cannot satisfy consumers’ demand for long distance travels. With technology advantages, EREVs could be a reliable solution for consumers who prefer NEVs and who also have strong demand for long-distance travels.
Long-Term Sustainability of EREVs
Despite the advancement of BEV technologies, potential development of charging infrastructure, and the uncertainty of changes in existing policies promulgated by local government on EREVs, the EREV market in the long run is still expected to grow significantly. In the first six months of 2021, the sales volume of EREVs reached 31,481, representing a 218.7% year-on-year increase, which signifies the vast growth potential of the EREV market in 2021. Although both EREVs and BEVs with ultra-fast charging may eliminate range anxiety, the popularity of EREVs is still sustainable given that EREVs can provide longer travel distances per energy refuel and allow for more flexibility for refueling. Furthermore, the coverage of charging infrastructure of BEVs in rural areas or areas with lower population density may not be sufficient in the near future, which places EREVs in a more competitive position in these areas. Consequently, the sales volume of EREVs is expected to increase from 0.03 million in 2020 to 0.4 million in 2025, which is expected to account for 7.3% of the total NEV sales volume in 2025.
THE FUTURE TREND: SMART VEHICLES
China’s NEV market has been entering a new stage of smart vehicles. There has been a surge in demand for smart vehicles as they can enhance vehicle safety, relieve traffic congestion, and enable more in-car entertainment.
According to the NDRC, smart vehicles refer to a new generation of cars that are equipped with advanced sensors and devices, use new technologies such as artificial intelligence, have autonomous driving solutions, and gradually become a new generation of smart mobile space and application terminals. The application of advanced technology is one of the key competitive advantages of smart vehicles compared to traditional vehicles because they are able to provide intelligent solutions to optimize users’ driving and riding experience. According to the CIC Report, smart vehicles primarily possess three core capabilities.

Autonomous Driving. Autonomous driving refers to self-driving or transport systems that can perform driving tasks without intervention by a human driver. According to CIC, the Society of
 
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Automotive Engineers categorizes autonomous driving into six levels ranging from Level 0 (no driving automation) to Level 5 (full driving automation). Currently, smart vehicles have realized the configuration of Level 2 autonomous driving and can generally achieve autonomous driving on highways and certain urban areas. Vehicles with Level 2 autonomous driving capability are typically equipped with adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assistance, and autobrake systems so that they can automatically steer, accelerate, and brake during the ride.

The following table compares all six levels of autonomous driving based on their respective human driver and system involvement.
Autonomous
Driving Level
Human Driver Involvement
System Involvement
Level 0
(no driving automation)

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration

Monitoring of driving environment

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

None
Level 1
(driver assistance)

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration

Monitoring of driving environment

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration (under certain conditions)
Level 2
(partial driving automation)

Monitoring of driving environment

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration
Level 3
(conditional driving automation)

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration

Monitoring of driving environment
Level 4
(high driving automation)

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration

Monitoring of driving environment

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task (under certain conditions)
Level 5
(full driving automation)

None

Execution of steering and acceleration/deceleration

Monitoring of driving environment

Fallback performance of dynamic driving task

OTA Upgrades. OTA is a technology that updates vehicle software remotely through cloud network, which is a foundation of smart vehicles. Leading smart vehicle manufacturers can
 
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provide full-vehicle OTA to upgrade both software and firmware. OTA upgrades can distribute new features on demand without visiting a dealer, after the vehicle has been delivered. As autonomous driving is progressing toward full autonomous driving, OTA will be essential to enable the distribution and upgrades of these functions.

Intelligent Cabin with Human-Machine Interaction (HMI). HMI is an indispensable capability for smart vehicles as it enables people to connect with and control vehicles smoothly. Major HMI features include voice recognition and interaction, touch panels, infotainment screens, and in-car applications. With ongoing integration of advanced computer systems into vehicles, their interfaces are becoming more complex and users are expected to control more functions of their vehicles.
In the future, with the continuous technological advancement in 5G, internet of things (IoT), big data, vehicle to everything (V2X), the concept and definition of smart vehicles will evolve and the threshold of smart vehicles will increase. Future smart vehicles will achieve autonomous driving beyond Level 2, full-vehicle OTA, and human emotional perception.
Smart Vehicle Market Size
According to the CIC Report, China’s smart vehicle sales volume reached 3.3 million vehicles in 2020, representing 15.8% of the total passenger vehicle sales volume. Encouraged by favorable government policies, the penetration rate of smart vehicles in all vehicles is expected to exceed 50% in 2025 with an expected sales volume of 13.1 million vehicles, representing a CAGR of 31.8% between 2020 and 2025.
Main Drivers of China’s Smart Vehicle Market
Supportive Regulations and Government Policies
Supportive regulations and government policies are expected to drive the development of smart vehicles in China. In recent years, the PRC government has continuously introduced favorable policies to support the development of artificial intelligence, 5G communication, and automotive industry, which benefit the development of smart vehicles. According to the Smart Car Development and Innovation Strategy issued by the NDRC, a comprehensive system of technological innovation, industrial ecology, infrastructure, regulations and standards, product supervision, and network security for smart vehicles will be formed by 2025.
Technology Advancement and Innovation
Technology advancement and innovation such as 5G, IoT, AI, cloud computing, and big data, represent the direction of the development of smart vehicles. The IoT PaaS, 5G, C-V2X, high-precision maps, autonomous driving, and artificial intelligence technologies not only optimize user experience, but also enhance the development of the smart vehicle industry. Technology advancement and innovation will promote the continuous growth of the smart vehicle market.
Increasing User Demand for Smart Vehicles
The growing acceptance of autonomous driving and HMI are fueling interest in smart vehicles. Compared to traditional vehicles, smart vehicles can respond to safety issues with precision in a shorter period of time, thereby effectively reducing the rate of traffic accidents, which caters to user demand. According to MIIT, smart vehicles are expected to reduce traffic accidents by 30% by 2025.
NEVs Are the Best Carriers of Intelligent Technologies
NEVs are the best carriers of intelligent technologies due to their modular body structure, high electrification, and high controllability. Compared to an ICE vehicle, an NEV has a simpler structure,
 
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which includes battery pack, electric motor, and electric controller, thus significantly reducing the number of parts and the complexity of circuit. A system of battery pack, electric motor, and electric controller can respond to commands quickly and achieve precise control. When new technologies are being adopted in the automotive industry, NEVs will be at an advantageous position to accelerate its transformation into intelligent products controlled by intelligent systems. The smart NEV sales volume increased from approximately 10,000 vehicles in 2017 to approximately 474,000 vehicles in 2020, representing 14.4% of total smart vehicle sales volume in 2020. The smart NEV market size is expected to grow from 2020 to 2025 at a CAGR of 57.7%, compared to a CAGR of 24.6% during the same period for smart ICE vehicle market size.
Ranking of Smart NEVs in China
Li ONE ranked the second in China’s smart NEV market in terms of sales volume in 2020, and accounted for a 7.1% share in the smart NEV market. The following table sets forth the ranking of smart NEVs in terms of sales volume in 2020.
Top 5 Smart NEVs
(in terms of sales volume in 2020)
Ranking
Models
Energy Type
Sales Volume(1) (Vehicles)
Market Share(2)
1
TESLA Model 3 BEV
140,311
29.6%
2 Li ONE EREV
33,457
7.1%
3
NIO ES6 BEV
27,832
5.9%
4
BYD Han EV BEV
21,167
4.5%
5
WM EX5 BEV
16,860
3.6%
Source: CPCA, CIC
Notes:
(1)
The sales volume refers to retail sales volume.
(2)
The market share is calculated as retail sales volume divided by total smart NEV sales volume.
Competitive Landscape of Mid-Sized and Larger SUV Segment in Terms of Intelligence
In the mid-sized and larger SUV market, Li ONE significantly outperforms other premium mid-sized and larger SUVs in terms of level of intelligence. The following table sets forth key metrics to evaluate the intelligence score of premium mid-sized and larger SUVs in China.
Intelligence Level of Premium Mid-Sized and Larger SUV Segment in China (2020)(1)(2)
Autonomous Driving
Interactive Configuration
Intelligence
Level
Model
Lane
Keeping
Assistance
Active
Braking
Adaptive
Cruise
Automatic
Parking
OTA(3)
Full Coverage
Voice Control
System(4)
Interactive
Display
Smart Models Li ONE Y Y Y Y
Y (FOTA)
Y
4
NIO ES8 O Y O O
Y (FOTA)
Y
2
NIO ES6 O Y O O
Y (FOTA)
Y
2
Mercedes-Benz GLE O Y O Y Y N
2
Mercedes-Benz GLS O Y O Y Y N
2/3
TESLA Model X Y Y Y O
Y (FOTA)
N
2/3
BMW X5 O Y O Y
Y (FOTA)
N
2/3
BMW X6 O Y O Y
Y (FOTA)
N
2/3
BMW X7 O O O Y
Y (FOTA)
N
2/3
 
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Intelligence Level of Premium Mid-Sized and Larger SUV Segment in China (2020)(1)(2)
Autonomous Driving
Interactive Configuration
Intelligence
Level
Model
Lane
Keeping
Assistance
Active
Braking
Adaptive Cruise
Automatic Parking
OTA(3)
Full Coverage
Voice Control
System(4)
Interactive
Display
Traditional
Models
Mercedes-Benz EQC O Y O Y N N
2
Audi e-tron O Y O N N N
3
VOLVO XC90 Y Y Y O N N
2
VOLKSWAGEN Teramont
O O O O N N
2
TOYOTA Highlander N O O N N N
1
BMW X3 O Y O O N N
2
Audi Q5L O Y O O N N
2
Mercedes-Benz GLC O Y O Y N N
2
BMW X4 O O O Y N N
2
LEXUS RX O O O N N N
2
LAND ROVER RANGE ROVER
O Y O O N N
3/4
PORSCHE Cayenne O Y O N N N
2
Source: CIC
Notes:
(1)
The vehicle intelligence level is analyzed based on the models available for sale as of December 31, 2020.
(2)
”Y” denotes standard configuration; “O” denotes optional configuration; and “N” denotes no configuration.
(3)
OTA technology can realize software update remotely through cloud network; FOTA is an advanced technology that can update both firmware and software remotely through cloud network.
(4)
A voice control system uses microphones to receive verbal commands from the users to realize certain vehicle functions. A full-coverage can locate and receive verbal commands from all seats in the vehicle.
 
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REGULATIONS
The following section sets forth updated information concerning certain regulations to which we are subject subsequent to the filing of our 2020 Form 20-F.
REGULATIONS ON AUTONOMOUS DRIVING
On April 3, 2018, the MIIT, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Transport issued the Circular on the Norms on Administration of Road Testing of Intelligent Connected Vehicles (Trial Implementation) (the “Circular No. 66”), which is the primary regulation governing protocol of road testing of intelligent connected vehicles in the PRC. Pursuant to the Circular No. 66, any entity intending to conduct a road testing of intelligent connected vehicles must apply for and obtain a road-testing certificate and a temporary license plate for each tested car. To qualify for these required licenses, an applicant entity must satisfy, among others, the following requirements: (i) it must be an independent legal person registered under PRC law with the capacity to conduct manufacturing, technological research or testing of automobiles and automobile parts, which has established protocol to test and assess the performance of intelligent connected system and is capable of conducting real-time remote monitor of the tested cars; (ii) the vehicle under road testing must be equipped with a driving system that can switch between autonomous pilot model and human driving model in a safe, quick and simple manner and allows human driver to take control of the vehicle any time immediately when necessary; (iii) the tested vehicle must be equipped with the function of recording, storing and real-time monitoring the condition of the vehicle and is able to transmit real-time data of the vehicle, such as the driving model, location and speed; (iv) the applicant entity must sign an employment contract or a labor service contract with the driver of the tested vehicle, who must be a licensed driver with more than three years’ driving experience and a track record of safe driving and is familiar with the testing protocol for autonomous driving system and proficient in operating the system; and (v) the applicant entity must insure each tested vehicle for at least RMB5 million against car accidents or provide a letter of guarantee covering the same. During testing, the testing entity should post a noticeable identification logo for autonomous driving test on each tested car and should not use autonomous driving model unless in the permitted testing areas specified in the road-testing certificate. If the testing entity intends to conduct road testing in the region beyond the administrative territory of the certificate issuing authority, it must apply for a separate road-testing certificate and a separate temporary license plate from the relevant authority supervising the road-testing of autonomous cars in that region. In addition, the testing entity is required to submit to the road-testing certificate issuing authority a periodical testing report every six months and a final testing report within one month after completion of the road testing. In the case of a car accident causing severe injury or death of personnel or vehicle damage, the testing entity must report the accident to the relevant authority within 24 hours and submit a comprehensive analysis report in writing covering cause analysis, final liability allocation results, etc. within five working days after the traffic enforcement agency determines the liability for the accident.
REGULATIONS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN CHINA
Regulations on Foreign Investment Restrictions
Investment activities in China by foreign investors are principally governed by the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment, or the Negative List and the Catalog of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment, or the Encouraging Catalog, which were promulgated and are amended from time to time by the MOFCOM and the NDRC. The Negative List and the Encouraging Catalog classify industries into three categories with regard to foreign investment: (i) “encouraged,” ​(ii) “restricted,” and (iii) “prohibited.”
The currently effective Negative List is the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2020 Version), or the 2020 Negative List, which was published by the MOFCOM and NDRC on June 23, 2020 and became effective on July 23, 2020. In addition, in
 
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December 2020, the MOFCOM and the NDRC also jointly promulgated the Encouraged Foreign Investment Industry Catalog (2020), which became effective on January 2021. Industries that are not listed in the 2020 Negative List are permitted areas for foreign investments and are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations. Some restricted industries are limited to equity or contractual joint ventures, while in some cases Chinese partners are required to hold majority interests in such joint ventures. In addition, projects in the restricted category may be subject to higher-level government approval requirements. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category. For example, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in companies engaged in Internet culture businesses (except for music) and radio and television program production businesses under the 2020 Negative List. The provision of value-added telecommunications services falls in the restricted category under the 2020 Negative List and the percentage of foreign ownership cannot exceed 50%, except for e-commerce, domestic multi-party communications, and store-and-forward call centers.
Pursuant to the Provisions on Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises promulgated by the State Council in December 2001 and most recently amended in February 2016, the ultimate foreign equity ownership in a value-added telecommunications services provider cannot exceed 50%. Moreover, for a foreign investor to own any equity interest in a value-added telecommunication business in China, it must satisfy a number of stringent performance and operational experience requirements, and obtain approvals from the MIIT and the MOFCOM or their authorized local counterparts, which retain considerable discretion in granting approvals. The MIIT issued the Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in and Operation of Value-Added Telecommunications Business in July 2006, which reiterate the regulations on foreign investment in telecommunications businesses and require foreign investors to set up foreign investment enterprises, or FIEs and obtain telecommunications business operating licenses to conduct any value-added telecommunications business in China.
To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs to operate value-added telecommunications services in China.
REGULATIONS ON VALUE-ADDED TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
In 2000, the State Council promulgated the PRC Telecommunications Regulations, or the Telecommunications Regulations, which was most recently amended in February 2016 and provides a regulatory framework for telecommunications services providers in China. The Telecommunications Regulations categorize all telecommunications businesses in China as either basic or value-added telecommunications services. Value-added telecommunications services are defined as telecommunications and information services provided through public network infrastructure. Pursuant to the Classified Catalog of Telecommunications Services, an attachment to the Telecommunications Regulations, which was most recently updated in June 2019 by the MIIT, internet information services, or ICP services, are classified as value-added telecommunications services. Under the Telecommunications Regulations and relevant administrative measures, commercial operators of value-added telecommunications services must first obtain an ICP license from the MIIT or its provincial level counterparts. Otherwise, such an operator might be subject to sanctions, including rectification orders and warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, and, in case of significant infringement, orders to close the website.
Pursuant to the Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services, promulgated by the State Council in 2000 and amended in 2011, “internet information services” refer to the provision of information through the internet to online users, and are divided into “commercial internet information services” and“non-commercial internet information services.” A commercial ICP service operator must obtain an ICP license before engaging in any commercial ICP services in China, while the ICP license is not required if the operator will only provide internet information on a non-commercial basis.
 
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In addition to the regulations and measures above, the provision of commercial internet information services on mobile internet applications are regulated by the Administrative Provisions on Information Services of Mobile Internet Applications, promulgated by the State Internet Information Office in June 2016. Information services providers of mobile internet applications are subject to these provisions, including acquiring relevant qualifications and being responsible for the management of information security.
We provide certain paid membership and other paid premium services to the owners of the vehicles through our websites and mobile application, which constitute commercial internet information services as defined in the above provisions. Beijing CLX, has obtained an ICP License that will remain effective until May 29, 2024.
REGULATIONS ON INTERNET INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY PROTECTION
In November 2016, the Standing Committee of the NPC promulgated the PRC Cybersecurity Law, or the Cybersecurity Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017. The Cybersecurity Law requires that network operators, including internet information services providers, take technical measures and other necessary measures in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and the compulsory requirements of the national and industrial standards to safeguard the safe and stable operation of its networks. We are subject to such requirements as we are operating a website and mobile application and providing certain internet services mainly through our mobile application. The Cybersecurity Law further requires internet information services providers to formulate contingency plans for network security incidents, report to the competent departments immediately upon the occurrence of any incident endangering cybersecurity, and take corresponding remedial measures.
Internet information services providers are also required to maintain the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of network data. The Cybersecurity Law reaffirms the basic principles and requirements specified in other existing laws and regulations on personal data protection, such as the requirements on the collection, use, processing, storage, and disclosure of personal data, and internet information services providers being required to take technical and other necessary measures to ensure the security of the personal information they have collected and prevent the personal information from being divulged, damaged, or lost. Any violation of the Cybersecurity Law may subject an internet information services provider to warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, revocation of licenses, cancelation of filings, shutdown of websites, or criminal liabilities.
The Decision on Maintenance of Cybersecurity enacted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on December 28, 2000, as amended in August 2009, stipulates, among others, that the following activities conducted via internet are subject to criminal penalty if they constitute crimes under PRC law: (i) hacking into a computer or system of strategic importance; (ii) intentionally inventing and spreading destructive programs such as computer viruses to attack computer systems and communications networks, thus damaging computer systems and the communications networks; (iii) disconnecting computer networks or communications services without authorization in violation of laws and regulations; (iv) divulging state secrets; (v) spreading false commercial information; or (vi) infringing intellectual property rights via internet.
The Provisions on Technological Measures for Cybersecurity Protection promulgated on December 13, 2005 by the Ministry of Public Security requires internet service providers and organizations that use interconnection services to implement technical measures for cybersecurity protection from any threat to network security, such as computer viruses and network attacks and breaches. All internet access service providers are required to take measures to keep a record of and preserve user registration information. Under these measures, value-added telecommunications services license holders must regularly update information security and content control systems for their websites and must also report any public dissemination of prohibited content to local public security authorities.
 
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If a value-added telecommunications services license holder violates these measures, the Ministry of Public Security and the local security bureaus may revoke its operating license and shut down its websites.
Pursuant to the Decision on Strengthening the Protection of Online Information issued by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress in 2012 and the Provisions on the Protection of Telecommunication and Internet User Personal Information issued by the MIIT in 2013 and the Cybersecurity Law, any collection and use of a user’s personal information must be consensual, legal, reasonable, and necessary, and must be limited to specified purposes, methods, and scopes. An internet information service provider must also keep such information strictly confidential, and is further prohibited from divulging, tampering with, or destroying any such information, or selling or providing such information to other parties. An internet information service provider is required to take technical and other measures to prevent the collected personal information from any unauthorized disclosure, damage, or loss. In case of any actual or potential leakage of user personal information, internet information service providers must take immediate remedial measures and make timely report to the relevant regulatory authorities and inform users in accordance with the regulations. Any violation of these laws and regulations may subject the internet information service provider to warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, revocation of licenses, cancelation of filings, shutdown of websites, or even criminal liabilities.
Pursuant to the Notice of the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and the Ministry of Public Security on Lawfully Punishing Criminal Activities Infringing upon the Personal Information of Citizens issued in 2013 and the Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on Several Issues Regarding Legal Application in Criminal Cases Infringing upon the Personal Information of Citizens issued on May 8, 2017 and effective on June 1, 2017, the following activities may constitute the crime of infringing upon a citizen’s personal information: (i) providing a citizen’s personal information to specified persons or releasing a citizen’s personal information online or through other methods in violation of relevant regulations and rules; (ii) providing legitimately collected information relating to a citizen to others without such citizen’s consent (unless the information is processed, not traceable to a specific person, and not recoverable); (iii) collecting a citizen’s personal information in violation of applicable regulations and rules when performing a duty or providing services; or (iv) collecting a citizen’s personal information by purchasing, accepting, or exchanging such information in violation of applicable regulations and rules.
With respect to the security of information collected and used by mobile apps, pursuant to the Announcement of Conducting Special Supervision Against the Illegal Collection and Use of Personal Information by Apps issued on January 23, 2019, app operators should collect and use personal information in compliance with the Cybersecurity Law and should be responsible for the security of personal information obtained from users and take effective measures to strengthen the protection of personal information. Furthermore, app operators must not force their users to make authorization by means of bundling, suspending installation, or in other default forms and should not collect personal information in (i) violation of laws or regulations, or (ii) breach of user agreements. Such regulatory requirements were emphasized by the Notice on the Special Rectification of Apps Infringing upon Users’ Personal Rights and Interests issued by the MIIT on October 31, 2019. On November 28, 2019, the Cyberspace Administration of China, the MIIT, the Ministry of Public Security, and the SAMR jointly issued the Methods of Identifying Illegal Acts of Apps to Collect and Use Personal Information. This regulation further illustrates certain commonly seen illegal practices of app operators in terms of the protection of personal information, including: “failure to publicize rules for collecting and using personal information,” “failure to expressly state the purpose, manner, and scope of collecting and using personal information,” “collection and use of personal information without consent of users of the app,” “collecting personal information irrelevant to the services provided by the app in violation of the principle of necessity,” “provision of personal information to others without users’ consent,” “failure to provide the function of deleting or correcting personal information as required by laws,” and “failure to publish information such as methods for complaints and reporting.” Any of the following acts, among others, of
 
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an app operator will constitute “collection and use of personal information without consent of users:” (i) collecting any user’s personal information or activating the permission for collecting any user’s personal information without obtaining such user’s consent; (ii) collecting personal information or activating the permission for collecting the personal information of any user who explicitly refuses such collection, or repeatedly seeking any user’s consent such that the user’s normal use of such app is disturbed; (iii) collecting any user’s personal information that has been actually collected by the app operator or activating the permission for collecting any user’s personal information by the app operator that is beyond the scope of personal information authorized to be collected; (iv) seeking any user’s consent in a non-explicit manner; (v) modifying any user’s settings for activating the permission for collecting any personal information without such user’s consent; (vi) using users’ personal information and any algorithms to directionally push any information, without providing the option of non-directed pushing of such information; (vii) misleading users to permit collecting their personal information or activating the permission for collecting the users’ personal information by improper methods, such as fraud and deception; (viii) failing to provide users with the means and methods to withdraw their permission for collecting personal information; and (ix) collecting and using personal information in violation of the rules for collecting and using personal information promulgated by the app operator.
On October 21, 2020, the Standing Committee of the National Peoples’ Congress issued the PRC Personal Information Protection Law (Draft for Comments), which integrates the scattered rules with respect to personal information rights and privacy protection. The draft law aims at protecting the personal information rights and interests, regulating the processing of personal information, ensuring the orderly and free flow of personal information in accordance with the law, and promoting the reasonable use of personal information. Personal information, as defined in the draft law, refers to information related to identified or identifiable natural persons and recorded by electronic or other means, but excluding the anonymized information. The draft law provides the circumstances under which a personal information processor could process personal information, which include but not limited to, where the consent of the individual concerned is obtained and where it is necessary for the conclusion or performance of a contract to which the individual is a contractual party. It also stipulates certain specific rules with respect to the obligations of a personal information processor, such as to inform the purpose and method of processing to the individuals, and the obligation of the third party who has access to the personal information by way of co-processing or delegation. As of the date of this prospectus, this draft law has not yet come into effect.
Pursuant to the Measures for Cybersecurity Review promulgated by the Cyberspace Administration of China and certain other PRC regulatory authorities in April 2020, which took effect in June 2020, critical information infrastructure operators must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services that affect or may affect national security. On July 10, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China published the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (Revised Draft for Comments). Pursuant to the draft measures, critical information infrastructure operators that purchase network products and services and data processing operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security must be subject to the cybersecurity review. The draft measures further elaborates the factors to be considered when assessing the national security risks of the relevant activities, including, among others: (i) the risk of core data, important data, or a large amount of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, and illegally used or exited the country, and (ii) the risk of critical information infrastructure, core data, important data, or a large amount of personal information being affected, controlled, or maliciously used by foreign governments after listing abroad. As of the date of this prospectus, the draft measures has not come into effect.
On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which will take effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the materiality of data in economic and social development, as well as the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or
 
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legitimate rights and interests of persons or entities when such data is tampered with, destroyed, divulged, or illegally acquired or used. It also provides for a security review procedure for the data activities which may affect national security.
On May 12, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China issued the Several Provisions on Automobile Data Security Management (Draft for Comment), which further elaborates the principles and requirements for the protection of personal information and important data in the automobile industry scenarios, and defines any enterprise or institution engaged in the automobile design, manufacture, and service as an operator. Such operator is required to process personal information or important data in accordance with applicable laws during the process of design, production, sales, operation, maintenance, and management of automobile.
M&A RULES AND OVERSEAS LISTING
On August 8, 2006, six PRC governmental and regulatory agencies, including the MOFCOM and the CSRC, promulgated the M&A Rules governing the mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and was revised on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules, among other things, require that if an overseas company established or controlled by PRC companies or PRC citizens intends to acquire equity interests or assets of any other PRC domestic company affiliated with the PRC citizens, such acquisition must be submitted to the MOFCOM for approval. The M&A Rules also require that an offshore special purpose vehicle, or a special purpose vehicle formed for overseas listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals, shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to overseas listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange.
On July 6, 2021, the State Council and General Office of the CPC Central Committee issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. The opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—The approval of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with this offering under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval.”
 
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HISTORY, REORGANIZATION AND CORPORATE STRUCTURE
The following section sets forth updated and supplemental information since the filing of our 2020 Form 20-F relating to selected aspects of our history and corporate structure.
OVERVIEW
Our Group was founded in April 2015 by our Founder, Mr. Li Xiang. In April 2017, the Company was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands under the name “CHJ Technologies Inc.” as our offshore holding company. Our Company later changed its name to “Leading Ideal Inc.” in April 2019 and to “Li Auto Inc.” in July 2020.
Since our inception, we have been leveraging technologies to create value for our users. We commenced research and development of our vehicle models and in-car technologies in April 2015. Our first model, Li ONE, started volume production in November 2019 and as of July 31, 2021, we have delivered over 72,000 Li ONEs.
Our Founder, Mr. Li Xiang, has over 20 years of experience founding and managing internet technology companies in China, including over 13 years of experience focusing on the automobile industry. Please see the section headed “Directors and Senior Management” for further details of the work experiences of Mr. Li Xiang.
BUSINESS MILESTONES
The following is a summary of our key business development milestones:
Timeline
Event
April 2015 We commenced business operation
October 2018 Product launch of Li ONE
August 2016 Foundation Stone Laying Ceremony of our Changzhou Plant
November 2019 We started the volume production of Li ONE
December 2019 We delivered our first Li ONE
July 2020 We listed our ADSs on the Nasdaq under the symbol “LI”
May 2021 We released our 2021 Li ONE
June 2021 Single-month orders of Li ONEs exceeded 10,000
July 2021 Cumulative deliveries of Li ONEs exceeded 72,000
OUR MAJOR SUBSIDIARIES AND OPERATING ENTITIES
The principal business activities, date of establishment and date of commencement of business of each member of our Group that made a material contribution to our results of operation during the Track Record Period are shown below:
Name
Principal business activities
Date of
establishment and
commencement
of business
Beijing CHJ Research and development April 10, 2015
Beijing Leading
Sales and after sales
management
August 6, 2019
Chongqing Lixiang
Manufacturing of automobile
October 11, 2019
Wheels Technology
Technology development and
corporate management
December 19, 2017
Xindian Interactive
Sales and after sales
management
May 08, 2017
 
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LISTING ON THE NASDAQ
On July 30, 2020, we listed our ADSs on the Nasdaq under the symbol “LI.” Our initial public offering on the Nasdaq was completed on August 3, 2020. Pursuant to the initial public offering, our Company sold 95,000,000 ADSs representing 190,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares at an offering price of US$11.50 per ADS; additionally, the underwriters exercised in full their option to purchase an additional 14,250,000 ADSs representing 28,500,000 Class A Ordinary Shares.
On August 3, 2020, concurrently with the completion of our initial public offering, we issued and sold (i) 52,173,913 Class A Ordinary Shares to Inspired Elite Investments Limited for a consideration of US$300.0 million, (ii) 5,217,391 Class A Ordinary Shares to Bytedance (HK) Limited for a consideration of US$30.0 million, (iii) 5,217,391 Class A Ordinary Shares to Zijin Global Inc. for a consideration of US$30.0 million, and (iv) 3,478,260 Class A Ordinary Shares to Kevin Sunny Holding Limited for a consideration of US$20.0 million. We received from our initial public offering gross proceeds of approximately US$1.64 billion and net proceeds, including the underwriters’ option, and the concurrent placing after deducting the underwriting discounts and offering expenses, of approximately US$1.58 billion.
As of March 31, 2021, we have utilized approximately 19% of the net proceeds from our initial public offering on the Nasdaq for capital expenditures, research and development of new products, and general corporate purposes and working capital. We still intend to use the remainder of the proceeds for purposes as disclosed in our registration statement on Form F-1 issued in connection with our initial public offering on the Nasdaq.
On December 3, 2020, our Company completed a follow-on public offering at a price of US$29.00 per ADS. In this offering, our Company sold 47,000,000 ADSs representing 94,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares. Additionally, the underwriters exercised in full their option to purchase an additional 7,050,000 ADSs representing 14,100,000 Class A Ordinary Shares. We received from this offering gross proceeds of approximately US$1.57 billion and net proceeds, including the underwriters’ option, after deducting the underwriting discounts and offering expenses, of approximately US$1.53 billion. As of March 31, 2021, we have not yet utilized our net proceeds from the follow-on offering. We still intend to use the net proceeds for purposes as disclosed in our registration statement on Form F-1 issued in connection with the follow-on offering.
We invest any unutilized net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing bank wealth management products and term deposits.
COMPLIANCE WITH THE RULES OF NASDAQ
Our Directors confirm that since the date of our listing on the Nasdaq and up to the Latest Practicable Date, we had no instances of non-compliance with the rules of the Nasdaq in any material respects and to the best knowledge of our directors having made all reasonable enquiries, there is no matter that should be brought to investors’ attention in relation to our compliance record on the Nasdaq.
REASONS FOR THE LISTING
Our Board is of the view that the Listing and the Global Offering will present us with an opportunity to further expand our investor base and broaden our access to capital markets and provide us with the necessary funding for us to further develop and commercialize our NEV products and to further expand our sales and marketing network as disclosed in the section headed “Business—Our Strategies” in this document. It is expected that the net proceeds from the Global Offering, after deducting the underwriting commissions and other estimated offering expenses payable by us, will amount to approximately HK$14.7 billion (based on the indicative offer price of HK$150.00 per Offer Share, and
 
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assuming the Over-allotment Option is not exercised). Please see the section headed “Future Plans and Use of Proceeds” in this document for details of our proposed uses of the net proceeds from the Global Offering.
MAJOR SHAREHOLDING CHANGES OF OUR COMPANY
Our Company was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on April 28, 2017 to serve as the holding company of our Group. Upon incorporation, our Company had an authorized share capital of US$50,000.00 divided into 5,000,000 ordinary shares with a par value of US$0.01 each.
The major shareholding changes of our Company during the Track Record Period were as set out below.
Ordinary Shares
On April 4, 2019, our Company effected a 100-for-1 share split whereby each of its then issued and outstanding ordinary shares was divided into 100 ordinary shares, par value of US$0.0001 each.
On June 14, 2019, our Company adopted a WVR structure. It repurchased and canceled all ordinary shares then outstanding, and issued 60,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares to C&J International Limited, 15,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares to Da Gate Limited and 240,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares to Amp Lee Ltd. at par value of US$0.0001 each.
In August 2020, we issued a total of 284,586,955 Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to our initial public offering on the Nasdaq and the concurrent private placement. In December 2020, we issued and sold a total of 108,100,000 Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to a follow-on offering on the Nasdaq. Further details of our initial public offering and the follow-on offering are set out in the section headed “—Listing on the Nasdaq” in this section.
Preferred Shares
Historically, Beijing CHJ issued certain preferred equity interests to various investors. Between July 2019 and January 2020, our Company underwent a reorganization of its shareholding structure and issued preferred shares in the share capital of our Company to equity interest holders of Beijing CHJ in exchange for the return of their respective preferred equity interests in Beijing CHJ. The said reorganization resulted in the issuance of an aggregate of (i) 50,000,000 Series Pre-A preferred shares, (ii) 129,409,092 Series A-1 preferred shares, (iii) 126,771,562 Series A-2 preferred shares, (iv) 65,498,640 Series A-3 preferred shares, (v) 115,209,526 Series B-1 preferred shares, (vi) 55,804,773 Series B-2 preferred shares, (vii) 119,950,686 Series B-3 preferred shares, and (viii) 267,198,535 Series C preferred shares; all of the preferred shares had a par value of US$0.0001 each.
On July 1, 2020, we issued (i) 212,816,737 Series D preferred shares to Inspired Elite Investments Limited for a consideration of US$500,000,000, (ii) 7,576,722 Series D preferred shares to Kevin Sunny Holding Limited for a consideration of US$20,000,000, and (iii) 11,365,082 Series D preferred shares to Amp Lee Ltd. for a consideration of US$30,000,000; all of the preferred shares had a par value of US$0.0001 each.
Immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering on the Nasdaq, all preferred and ordinary shares beneficially owned by Mr. Li at the time were re-designated into 355,812,080 Class B Ordinary Shares on a one-for-one basis; and immediately upon the completion of our initial public offering, all the issued and outstanding preferred shares in our Company (other than those beneficially owned by Mr. Li) were converted into Class A Ordinary Shares on a one-for-one basis.
 
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OUR INVESTORS PRIOR TO THE NASDAQ LISTING
Since our inception, we have received investments from various professional equity investment funds and prestigious internet technology companies. The aggregate net proceeds from such investments amounted to an equivalent of RMB14.0 billion. As of the Latest Practicable Date, we have utilised substantially all of the net proceeds from these investments for capital expenditures, research and development and working capital purposes. The investments led to the issuance of certain preferred shares in the share capital of our Company which were converted into Class A Ordinary Shares immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering on the Nasdaq. Further details are as set out in the sub-section headed “—Major shareholding changes of our Company—Preferred shares” in this section.
Among such investors, Meituan (through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Inspired Elite Investments Limited) subscribed for 212,816,737 Series D preferred shares in our Company in July 2020 for a consideration of US$500 million and further subscribed for 52,173,913 Class A Ordinary Shares for a consideration of US$300 million in the private placement conducted concurrently with the completion of our initial public offering on the Nasdaq. As of the Latest Practicable Date, Meituan held 258,171,601 Class A Ordinary Shares and is expected to be a substantial shareholder of our Company following the Listing. Meituan is a sophisticated investor of our Company and in accordance with Guidance Letter HKEX-GL93-18, has undertaken to the Company that it will retain an aggregate 50% of its investment at the time of the Listing for a period of six months following the Listing.
Meituan is a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands and its Class B ordinary shares were listed on the Stock Exchange (stock code: 3690) in September 2018. Meituan is a leading e-commerce platform for services in China. As of the Latest Practicable Date, it had a market capitalization in excess of HK$1.6 trillion. Meituan is an experienced investor and has invested in a spectrum of companies, including robotics, SaaS, autonomous driving, intelligent hardware and other industries.
INVESTOR RIGHTS AGREEMENT
On July 9, 2020, we entered into an investor rights agreement with Inspired Elite Investments Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Meituan and at the time a shareholder of our Series D preferred shares, which took effect upon the completion of our initial public offering on the Nasdaq and was subsequently amended and restated with effect from the Listing Date (the “Investment Rights Agreement”). The Investor Rights Agreement (as amended) provides for certain special rights for Inspired Elite Investments Limited and any other subsidiary of Meituan that is a Shareholder at the relevant time (each a “Meituan Shareholder”), which are:
(a)
the right to appoint, remove, and replace one director. This right will terminate immediately upon the Listing;
(b)
the consent right to: (i) the creation or issuance of any shares that carry more than one vote per share, or preferred shares having rights that are more favorable to the shares held by Inspired Elite Investments Limited and any other subsidiary of Meituan, or any action that amends the voting power attached to any Class B Ordinary Shares, and (ii) amendment of any existing equity incentive plan by increasing the shares reserved for issuance or extending the expiration date, or adoption of any new equity incentive plan. This right will terminate immediately upon the Listing; and
(c)
right of first refusal on change of control the occurrence of any of the following transactions: (i) an amalgamation, merger, consolidation, scheme of arrangement or similar transaction of our Company with or into any other person in which the shareholders of our Company immediately prior to such a transaction or transactions do not hold more than 50% of our Company’s voting power in the aggregate immediately after such a transaction or transactions
 
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and the surviving entity is no longer controlled by such shareholders and their respective affiliates immediately after such a transaction or transactions; or ( ii) sale, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of our Company (including without limitation in a liquidation, dissolution or similar proceeding) (together, a “Change of Control Transaction”).
In the event that a Meituan Shareholder exercises the right of first refusal in accordance with the procedures set out in the Investor Rights Agreement, the Company then is obliged to: (a) together with the Meituan Shareholder, use their respective reasonable best efforts to agree in good faith and enter into definitive documentation so that the Meituan Shareholder will consummate the Change of Control Transaction at a purchase price no less than, and on substantially the same material terms and conditions as, those initially proposed and notified to the Meituan Shareholder; and (b) subject to the terms of the definitive documentation and necessary extensions, consummate the Change of Control Transaction with the Meituan Shareholder as soon as reasonably practicable, and in no event later than two months after the exercise of the right of first refusal. Mr. Li and Amp Lee Ltd. are also obliged to make reasonable best efforts to procure the Company to perform and comply with its obligations following the exercise of the right of first refusal.
Meituan’s exercise of the right of first refusal and the performance of the Company’s obligations following the exercise of the right of first refusal after the Listing will be subject to the Listing Rules and the Takeovers Code and other applicable laws and regulations in effect at the time.
The Investor Rights Agreement will automatically terminate if Inspired Elite Investments Limited and any other subsidiary of Meituan cease to beneficially own, in aggregate, for the first time, at least 50% of the shares beneficially owned by them on the date of the completion of our initial public offering on the Nasdaq.
The special rights were granted to Meituan in connection with its US$500 million pre-IPO investment in our Company in early July 2020. Meituan invested a further US$300 million as part of our Company’s initial public offering on the Nasdaq in July 2020. Currently Mr. Wang Xing, the founder and controlling shareholder of Meituan, is the representative director of Meituan on our Board.
Meituan is a leading e-commerce platform for services in China and a well-known investor in China, with investments across a spectrum of industries. Having Meituan as our major investor would allow us to continue to benefit from the business guidance and strategic advantages Meituan can offer as a major investor; Meituan’s investment demonstrated its confidence in and endorsement of the performance, management and prospects of our Company and in turn enhanced our credibility and attractiveness to future investors. The Directors therefore considered the Investor Rights Agreement is in the best interests of the Company and its Shareholders as a whole at the time it was entered into and remain of that view.
In approving the Investors Rights Agreement, the Directors were required to exercise under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and did exercise, fiduciary duties in granting the above rights taking into account the benefits of receiving the capital investment from Meituan, and acted in the best interests of our Company and our shareholders as a whole. The Company further confirms that the special rights granted to Meituan do not conflict with any applicable US laws or regulations, including any rules of the Nasdaq.
CONVERTIBLE NOTES
In April 2021, we issued the 2028 Notes, namely, the convertible senior notes in an aggregate principal amount of US$862.5 million due 2028 with an interest rate of 0.25% per annum. The 2028 Notes may be converted, at an initial conversion rate of 35.2818 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount
 
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(which represents an initial conversion price of US$28.34 per ADS) at each holder’s option at any time on or after November 1, 2027, until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date of May 1, 2028. The initial conversion price of US$28.34 per ADS, or US$14.17 per Class A Ordinary Share (the latter represents the effective cost per Class A Ordinary Share), represents a discount of approximately 26.56% to the maximum Public Offer Price of HK$150.00 per Class A Ordinary Share. The initial conversion rate may be adjusted in certain circumstances, including but not limited to when our Company effects a share split or share combination. As of the Latest Practicable Date, no adjustment had been made to the initial conversion rate. Holders of the 2028 Notes have the right to require us to repurchase their notes on May 1, 2024 and May 1, 2026 or upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture), in each case, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. If such fundamental change occurs, such event would allow early repurchase of the 2028 Notes by the noteholders. Please see the risk factor relating to the repurchase rights provision in the section headed “Risk Factors—We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversion of the notes in cash, to repurchase the notes upon a fundamental change, to repurchase notes on May 1, 2024 and May 1, 2026, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or to repurchase the notes.”
The 2028 Notes were placed to a wide range of institutional investors (qualified institutional buyers) in a Rule 144A offering. The 2028 Notes are dematerialized (intermediated) securities cleared via Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas in a regular way and trade in the 144A market via brokers. No material special rights were granted to the holders of the 2028 Notes that will survive following the Listing. None of the holders of the 2028 Notes is subject to any lock-up requirement. To the best knowledge of the Company, none of the holders of the 2028 Notes are connected persons of the Company. As such the Class A Ordinary Shares underlying all the ADSs to be issued upon the conversion of the 2028 Notes will be counted towards the public float.
Assuming full conversion of the 2028 Notes at the initial conversion rate of 35.2818 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount, the 2028 Notes will be convertible into 30,430,552 ADSs, representing 60,861,104 Class A Ordinary Shares. For illustrative purposes only, 60,861,104 Class A Ordinary Shares represent approximately 2.88% of the total issued share capital (as if enlarged by the issue of such shares) of our Company immediately upon completion of the Global Offering (assuming the Over-allotment Option is not exercised and no further Shares are issued under the Share Incentive Plans).
We received gross proceeds of US$862.5 million and net proceeds of approximately US$844.9 million from the issue of the 2028 Notes. The gross proceeds were paid to us in full on April 12, 2021. As of the Latest Practicable Date, we have not yet utilized our net proceeds from the issue of the 2028 Notes. Our Company plans to use the net proceeds from the issue of the 2028 Notes for (i) research and development of new vehicle models, including HPC BEV models, (ii) research and development of leading technologies, and (iii) working capital and other general corporate purposes.
The issue of the 2028 Notes was not linked to the Listing and the conversion price of the 2028 Notes is not linked to the Offer Price or the market capitalization of our Company. Following the Listing, the operation of the 2028 Notes will be subject to the applicable requirements of the Listing Rules.
MAJOR ACQUISITIONS, DISPOSALS AND MERGERS
We have not conducted any acquisitions, disposals or mergers since our inception that we consider to be material to us.
 
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REORGANIZATION
In preparation for the Listing, we underwent reorganization of our corporate structure (the “Reorganization”), which consisted of the following material steps:
1.
Reorganization of our onshore subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities
With a view to complying with the requirements under the Listing Decision LD43-3 to the extent practicable, we underwent reorganization of the holding structure of our onshore subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities. The Reorganization mainly involved changing certain consolidated affiliated entities controlled through contractual arrangements to wholly-owned or partly-owned subsidiaries of our Company, to the extent permitted under the relevant PRC laws and regulations.
Our PRC Legal Advisor confirmed that: (i) all necessary regulatory approvals, permits and licenses required under PRC Laws in relation to the Reorganization have been obtained; and (ii) all share transfers and changes in registered capital as part of the Reorganization has complied with all applicable PRC Laws in all material respects.
2.
Entry into the Contractual Arrangements to replace the old contractual arrangements
On April 21, 2021, the Contractual Arrangements were entered into to replace the old contractual arrangements in place before the Reorganization. See section headed “Contractual Arrangements” for further details.
As of the Latest Practicable Date, the Reorganization had been completed.
Below is a simplified diagram illustrating our corporate structure immediately before the Reorganization took place. A diagram illustrating our corporate structure after completion of the Reorganization and immediately prior to the Global Offering is set out under the section headed “—Our structure immediately prior to the Global Offering” in this section.
 
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Our structure as of December 31, 2020, prior to the Reorganization
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-fc_histroybw.jpg]
Notes:
(1)
Please refer to Note (6) under the section headed “—Our Structure immediately prior to the Global Offering” in this section.
(2)
Jiangsu Chehejia was held by Beijing Xindian Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd. as to 66.67% and Beijing CHJ as to 33.33%.
PRC REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors (《關於外國投資者併購境內企業的規定》) (the “M&A Rules”) jointly issued by MOFCOM, the SASAC, the STA, the CSRC, the SAIC (currently known as the SAMR) and the SAFE on August 8, 2006, effective as of September 8, 2006 and amended on June 22, 2009 with immediate effect, require that a special purpose vehicle, formed for overseas listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals through acquisitions of shares of or equity interests in PRC domestic companies, shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange.
Our PRC Legal Advisor is of the opinion that prior CSRC approval for this offering is not required because (i) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours under this document are subject to the M&A Rules; (ii) our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries were not established through mergers or acquisitions of domestic companies owned by PRC companies or individuals as defined under the M&A Rules that are the beneficial owners of our Company; and (iii) that no provision in the M&A Rules clearly classified contractual arrangements as a type of transaction subject to the M&A Rules. However, our PRC Legal Advisor further advises that there is uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented.
 
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SAFE REGISTRATION IN THE PRC
Pursuant to the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Residents to Engage in Overseas Investment, Financing and Round Trip Investment via Special Purpose Vehicles (《國家外匯管理局關於境內居民通過特殊目的 公司境外投融資及返程投資外匯管理有關問題的通知》) (the “SAFE Circular No. 37”), promulgated by SAFE on July 4, 2014 with immediate effect which replaced the Circular of the SAFE on Foreign Exchange Administration of Equity Financing and Round-Trip Investments by Domestic Residents via Special Purpose Vehicles (《國家外匯管理局關於境內居民通過境 外特殊目的公司融資及返程投資外匯管理有關問題的通知》) (the “SAFE Circular No. 75”), (a) a PRC resident must register with the local SAFE counterpart before he or she contributes assets or equity interests in an overseas special purpose vehicle (the “Overseas SPV”) that is directly established or indirectly controlled by the PRC resident for the purpose of conducting investment or financing; and (b) following the initial registration, the PRC resident is also required to register with the local SAFE counterpart for any major change in respect of the Overseas SPV, including, among other things, a change of Overseas SPV’s PRC resident shareholder(s), the name of the Overseas SPV, terms of operation, or any increase or reduction of the Overseas SPV’s capital, share transfer or swap, and merger or division. Pursuant to SAFE Circular No. 37, failure to comply with these registration procedures may result in penalties.
Pursuant to the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Foreign Currency Management Policy on Direct Investment (《國家外匯管理局關於進一步簡化和改進直接投資 外匯管理政策的通知》) (the “SAFE Notice No. 13”), promulgated by SAFE on February 13, 2015 and became effective on June 1, 2015, the power of foreign exchange registration was delegated from the local SAFE counterpart to qualified local banks where the domestic entity was incorporated.
As advised by our PRC Legal Advisor, Mr. Li Xiang, Mr. Shen Yanan and Mr. Li Tie, and eight other individuals, who indirectly hold Shares of our Company and are known to us as being PRC citizens, have completed the registration under the SAFE Circular 37.
OUR STRUCTURE IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO THE GLOBAL OFFERING
The following diagram illustrates the simplified corporate and shareholding structure of our Group immediately prior to the completion of the Global Offering (assuming there is no change in the shareholding of the public Shareholders from the Latest Practicable Date to immediately prior to the
 
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Global Offering and assuming no further Shares are issued under the Share Incentive Plans or pursuant to the conversion of the 2028 Notes and the Reorganization is completed):
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-fc_ourstrubw.jpg]
Notes:
(1)
Amp Lee Ltd. is a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands and is wholly owned by Cyric Point Enterprises Limited. The entire interest in Cyric Point Enterprises Limited is held by a trust that was established by Mr. Li (as the settlor) for the benefit of Mr. Li and his family.
(2)
Inspired Elite Investments Limited is a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands. Inspired Elite Investments Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Meituan, a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands and listed on the Stock Exchange (stock code: 3690). Mr. Wang Xing is a director and the controlling shareholder of Meituan.
(3)
Representing:
(a)
131,883,776 Class A Ordinary Shares and 1,379,310 Class A Ordinary Shares represented by 689,655 ADSs held by
 
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Zijin Global Inc., a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands. Zijin Global Inc. is wholly owned by Songtao Limited. The entire interest in Songtao Limited is held by a trust that was established by Mr. Wang Xing (as the settlor), our non-executive Director, for the benefit of Mr. Wang Xing and his family, with the trustee being TMF (Cayman) Ltd.
(b)
86,978,960 Class A Ordinary Shares held by Rainbow Six Limited. Rainbow Six Limited is a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands and is wholly owned by Star Features Developments Limited. The entire interest in Star Features Development Limited is held by a trust that was established by Mr. Fan Zheng (as the settlor), our non-executive Director, for the benefit of Mr. Fan Zheng and his family.
(c)
15,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares held by Da Gate Limited, which is a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands and is wholly-owned by Brave City Group Limited. The entire interest in Brave City Group Limited is held by a trust that was established by Mr. Shen Yanan (as the settlor), our executive Director, for the benefit of Mr. Shen Yanan and his family.
(d)
14,373,299 Class A Ordinary Shares held by Sea Wave Overseas Limited, which is a company incorporated in British Virgin Islands and is wholly owned by Day Express Group Limited. The entire interest in Day Express Group Limited is held by a trust that was established by Mr. Li Tie (as the settlor), our executive Director, for the benefit of Mr. Li Tie and his family.
(4)
Namely:
(a)
Shanghai Lixiang Automobile Technology Co., Ltd. (上海理想汽車科技有限公司);
(b)
Beijing Lixiang Automobile Co., Ltd. (北京理想汽車有限公司);
(c)
Chehejia (Xiamen) Investment Co., Ltd. (車和家(廈門)投資有限公司);
(d)
Lixiang Zhizao Automobile Services (Xiamen) Co., Ltd. (理想智造汽車服務(廈門)有限公司), being a wholly-owned subsidiary of Chehejia (Xiamen) Investment Co., Ltd.; and
(e)
Shanghai Yizhinan Technology Co., Ltd. (上海易之南科技有限公司).
(5)
Namely:
(a)
Zhejiang Lixiang Automobile Co., Ltd. (浙江理想汽車有限公司);
(b)
Chehejia Financial Technology (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd. (車和家金融科技(江蘇)有限公司);
(c)
Beijing Xindian Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd. (北京心電智能科技有限公司); and
(d)
Chongqing Xinfan, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Beijing Xindian Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd..
(6)
Including 32,957,578 Class A Ordinary Shares (as at the Latest Practicable Date) issued to the Depositary for bulk issuance of ADSs reserved for future issuances upon the exercise or vesting of awards granted under the Share Incentive Plans. As of the Latest Practicable Date, such Shares are not held by the Depositary on behalf of any person, as the relevant awards have not yet been exercised or vested. The Depositary is not entitled to exercise the voting rights attached to such Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to the deposit agreement; only the holder of the ADSs representing such Class A Ordinary Shares, once issued pursuant to the exercise or vesting of the relevant awards, may exercise the relevant voting rights by giving the necessary instructions to the Depositary.
(7)
Including: Bytedance (HK) Limited, an intermediary company of the investor, ByteDance, holding 18,687,944 Class A Ordinary Shares representing 0.96% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date; Chemei (Shanghai) Enterprise Management Consulting, a limited partnership under the equity investment fund, Long-Z (龍 珠), holding 11,225,461 Class A Ordinary Shares, representing 0.58% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date; Future Capital Discovery Fund I, L.P. and Future Capital Discovery Fund II, L.P., limited partnerships under the investment fund, Future Capital Discovery Fund (明勢資本), holding 4,889,935 Class A Ordinary Shares and 11,653,510 Class A Ordinary Shares, representing 0.25% and 0.60% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date respectively; GZ Limited, an intermediary company of the investor, Guazi (瓜子二手車), holding 11,377,395 Class A Ordinary Shares, representing 0.58% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date; Striver Holdings Ltd., an intermediary company of an individual investor, holding 36,464,907 Class A Ordinary Shares, representing 1.87% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date; and Xiamen Xinweidachuang Investment Partnership, a limited partnership under the equity investment fund, Matrix Partners China (經緯中國), holding 24,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares, representing 1.23% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date. The remaining other public Shareholders each holds less than 0.5% of the issued Shares of the Company as at the Latest Practicable Date. The foregoing Shareholders are our investors that invested in us before our initial public offering on the Nasdaq. For clarity, the foregoing Shareholders hold Class A Ordinary Shares and not our ADSs. These Class A Ordinary Shares are included in our application to the Listing Committee of the Stock Exchange for the listing of and the permission to deal in our Class A Ordinary Shares on the Stock Exchange, and therefore may be traded on the Stock Exchange after the Listing, subject to the relevant Shareholders meeting any requirements or obligations, under law or otherwise, that are applicable to them for them to trade the said shares.
 
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OUR STRUCTURE IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION OF THE GLOBAL OFFERING
The following diagram illustrates the simplified corporate and shareholding structure of our Group immediately following the completion the Global Offering (assuming there is no change in the shareholding of the public Shareholders from the Latest Practicable Date to immediately following the Global Offering and assuming the Over-allotment Option is not exercised and no further Shares are issued under the Share Incentive Plans or pursuant to the conversion of the 2028 Notes, and assuming the Reorganization is completed):
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-fc_globalbw.jpg]
Notes (1)-(7): See Notes (1)-(7) in preceding pages under the section headed “—Our structure immediately prior to the Global Offering.”
 
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The following section sets forth updated and supplemental information since the filing of our 2020 Form 20-F relating to selected aspects of our business and operations as well as a current description of our overview, strengths, and strategies.
OVERVIEW
We are an NEV automaker in China. We design, develop, manufacture, and sell premium smart electric vehicles. Through our product and technology, we provide families with safe and convenient products and services. We are a pioneer in successfully commercializing EREVs in China. Our first and currently the only commercialized model, Li ONE, is a six-seat, large premium electric SUV equipped with a range extension system and advanced smart vehicle solutions. We started volume production of Li ONE in November 2019 and released the 2021 Li ONE on May 25, 2021. As of July 31, 2021, we delivered over 72,000 Li ONEs. In 2020, Li ONE ranked as the best-selling new energy SUV model in China with a 9.7% market share and ranked in the top six in China’s NEV market in terms of sales volume with a 2.8% market share, and we ranked as the eleventh among all the NEV brands in China in terms of sales volume, according to the CIC Report. The market size of China’s passenger vehicle market and NEV market in 2020 was 20.8 million and 1.2 million, respectively, according to the CIC Report. In 2020, the NEV sales volume accounted for 5.8% of the total passenger vehicle sales volume in China, and EREVs accounted for 2.8% of China’s NEV market in terms of sales volume, according to the CIC report.
The following diagram illustrates Li ONE’s certain features and specifications.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-tbl_lione4clr.jpg]
 
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We are dedicated to serving the mobility needs of families in China. To this end, we strategically focus on NEVs within a price range of RMB200,000 (approximately US$31,000) to RMB500,000 (approximately US$76,000). As one of the most competitive SUV models in China, Li ONE has been well positioned to capture the huge growth opportunity of the SUV segment. With growing purchasing power, families in China tend to choose SUVs for daily commutes and weekend family trips. We believe that Li ONE offers our users the performance, functionality, and cabin-space of a large premium smart SUV while priced close to a compact premium SUV.
We believe that automotive technologies will continue to evolve, and as new technologies enable us to create more compelling products for users to address their needs, we evolve our products as well.

Our existing product, Li ONE, utilizes our proprietary EREV solution, which enables families to enjoy all the benefits of a premium SUV while free from range anxiety. We are developing our X platform, which succeeds the existing EREV platform for Li ONE and is equipped with our next-generation EREV powertrain system. We plan to launch the first product on our X platform, a full-size premium extended-range electric SUV, in 2022, and to launch two additional SUVs on our X platform in 2023.

We are investing heavily in the HPC BEV technologies. We focus on developing HPC BEVs, which we believe will deliver superior charging experience. Charging under our planned HPC network will be faster, cheaper, and more accessible. We are developing two platforms, Whale and Shark, for our future HPC BEVs. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year.

We believe that Level 4 autonomous driving will be the primary operating model for all vehicles in the foreseeable future. We are investing significantly in our proprietary autonomous driving technologies. Starting from 2022, all our new vehicle models will be equipped with necessary hardware compatible with in-house developed, future Level 4 autonomous driving as a standard configuration, and we will continue to optimize our autonomous driving solutions leveraging our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities. For different levels of autonomous driving, see “Industry Overview—The Future Trend: Smart Vehicles.”
Since our inception, we have been leveraging technologies to create value for our users. We have invested in in-car technologies to provide joyful driving and riding experiences for families. We have developed our signature four-display interactive system, full-coverage in-car voice control system, and autonomous driving technologies. Furthermore, our utilization of FOTA upgrades enables us to introduce additional functionality and improve vehicle performance continuously throughout the entire vehicle lifecycle.
We have digitalized our user interactions and established our own direct sales and servicing network to continuously improve operating efficiency. With our integrated online and offline platform, we can achieve higher efficiency in sales and marketing than automakers that rely on third-party dealerships to reach customers. In particular, we have developed a data-driven, closed-loop digital platform to manage all user interactions from sales leads to test drives to purchases and even to user reviews, which enables us to significantly reduce user acquisition costs.
Quality is essential to our business. We manufacture in-house and collaborate with industry-leading suppliers to ensure the high quality of our vehicles. We have built our own manufacturing base in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, which allows our engineering and manufacturing teams to seamlessly collaborate with each other and streamline the feedback loop for rapid product enhancements and quality improvements. We have also implemented strict quality control protocols and measurements for selecting and managing our suppliers. As of March 31, 2021, Li ONE was the only large SUV that has received top ratings under all of the China Insurance Automotive Safety Index (C-IASI), the China Automobile Health Index (C-AHI), and the China-New Car Assessment Program (C-NCAP), according to the CIC Report.
 
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The Challenge Facing China’s NEV Market
We believe that smart electric vehicles represent a trend of the automotive industry. China is both the largest passenger vehicle market and the largest NEV market in the world as measured by sales volume. China’s NEV market is currently skewed towards BEVs, as 81.1% of the NEVs sold in China in 2020 were BEVs, according to the CIC Report. However, the development of NEVs in China is currently facing one fundamental challenge: the inconvenience of energy replenishment. The inconvenience of, and lengthy time needed for, BEVs’ charging solutions cause range anxiety, which limits use cases and impedes the wider acceptance of BEVs in China. As a result, sales volume of BEVs represents only 4.7% of sales volume of total passenger vehicle in 2020, according to the CIC Report.
China faces a problem of inadequate private and public fast charging infrastructure. The development of private charging infrastructure is affected by factors such as limited residential parking space in cities with high population density, low percentages of residential parking space suitable for installing home charging stalls, and power grid capacity limits in aged residential areas. As of December 31, 2020, fewer than 25% of families in first-tier cities in China had parking space suitable for installing home charging stalls, compared with over 70% of families in the United States, according to the CIC Report. As a result, a substantial number of BEV owners in China have to rely on public charging infrastructure. As of December 31, 2020, the ratio of NEV parc to public fast charging stalls was 15.9 to 1, according to the CIC Report. This demonstrates the insufficient number of public fast charging stalls in China to support the growth of BEVs.
In addition, existing charging solutions are time-consuming and have always troubled BEV owners as they usually take between 30 minutes and 60 minutes to charge a BEV. Considering the additional waiting time, the total time for waiting and charging is longer than consumers’ expectation and thus causes inconvenience to consumers.
Our Solutions
To address the challenge facing China’s NEV market, any NEV energy replenishment solution must be at least as convenient and efficient as an ICE vehicle energy replenishment solution and also must demonstrate commercial viability. We have developed an EREV solution and are also investing in the HPC BEV solution as both solutions could provide users with convenient energy replenishment experience that is comparable to ICE vehicles.
 
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The following diagram illustrates our EREV powertrain and the difference between EREVs as compared to PHEVs, BEVs, and ICE vehicles.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-ph_power4clr.jpg]
EREV Solution
We have developed our proprietary EREV technologies and applied them to our first model, Li ONE.
An EREV is purely electric-driven by its electric motor, but its energy source and power come from both its battery pack and range extension system. A range extension system generates electricity with a dedicated ICE designed with high fuel consumption efficiency, an electric generator, and a speed reducer to connect them. Our Li ONE electric propulsion system consists of a 145-kilowatt rear-drive electric motor, a 100-kilowatt front-drive electric motor, and a 40.5-kilowatt-hour battery pack, which supports an electrically powered NEDC range of 188 kilometers. Li ONE’s range extension system consists of a 1.2-liter turbo-charged engine configured and fine-tuned for EREV purpose, a 100-kilowatt electric generator, and a 55-liter fuel tank. With its integrated powertrain system, Li ONE delivers a total NEDC range of 1,080 kilometers and energy efficiency of 6.05 liters per 100 kilometers or 17.7 kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers, depending on its driving mode, according to the CIC Report.
Li ONE’s energy can be replenished by slow charging, fast charging, and refueling. Li ONE can operate even when users have no access to charging infrastructure, thereby completely eliminating range anxiety. Benefiting from its all-electric-driven propulsion, Li ONE offers a similarly high-quality driving experience to that of BEVs, such as smooth acceleration (acceleration from zero to 100 kilometers-per-hour in 6.5 seconds) and superior NVH performance. The overall energy consumption level of Li ONE is much lower than that of ICE vehicles in a similar class, as a result of its high energy efficiency range extension system. In addition, our Li ONE users can also benefit from vehicle-related tax exemptions in
 
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China and local government policies in favor of NEVs in certain cities in China, such as no quota limitations for vehicle license plate application and exemption from traffic restrictions.
Our next-generation EREV platform can support longer range, higher thermal efficiency, and better NVH performance. It further enhances integration of the range extension system and the electric motors to support higher electric power output and better acceleration performance. It leverages a world-class chassis to support a larger vehicle body and provide optimal driving experience and superior vehicle passing capability.
With the unique capabilities and features, we believe that our EREV technologies will help accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles in China and contribute to China’s national initiatives to build a low-carbon-emission society.
HPC BEV Solution
As next-generation electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, we believe that it is the right time to introduce an HPC BEV platform and future HPC BEV models. A number of ultra-fast charging technologies, such as high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, and HPC network, have emerged. We have been investing in the technology advancement in these areas and plan to develop ultra-fast charging solutions, which aim to effectively address the inconvenience of energy replenishment for BEVs. We plan to develop a high C-rate battery to balance the cost, longevity, safety, and charging and discharging rate. We are also developing key parts of the high-voltage platform, such as a high-voltage air compressor. To facilitate commercialization of our HPC BEVs, we plan to deploy an HPC network that consists of ultra-fast charging stations. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year. As a new entrant into the BEV market, we believe our proven product defining capability, as substantiated by the track record of developing Li ONE, deep understanding of the needs of families, and wide recognition of our brand and products provide a solid foundation for competing with peer BEV manufacturers. We also believe our HPC BEVs, which will be empowered by the next-generation electric vehicle technologies developed with our strong research and development capabilities, will also significantly improve charging efficiency and thereby effectively eliminate range anxiety, improve driving experience, and differentiate us from our competitors. Our existing research and development capabilities and accumulated know-how for EREVs, which we are leveraging in developing BEVs in areas such as autonomous driving, control algorithm, and electric-driven system, would also serve as our competitive advantage. We strategically plan to expand our product line to launch both EREV and BEV models within our target price range so as to build a solid brand trusted by families.
OUR INNOVATION
We believe that our success is attributable to our first mover advantage in the successful commercialization of EREVs, application of our advanced technologies and successful business model, and our strong research and development capabilities. Our track record of innovations and our continued success in a competitive industry are widely recognized.
We are the first to successfully commercialize EREVs in China. Prior to the release of Li ONE, our first model, there were a few mass-produced EREV models around the world, but they either had limited sales volume in China or had discontinued production. Our Li ONE enables users to enjoy all the benefits of an electric vehicle while freeing them from the range anxiety typically associated with BEVs. According to the CIC Report, Li ONE is the first EREV model that offers battery capacity of over 40 kilowatt-hours. The batter capacity it offers is also the largest among all EREV models in the world. Li ONE is also the first vehicle in the world to have a thermal management system that integrates battery, air conditioner, and range extension system, which achieves more efficient thermal management and utilization. In addition, Li ONE is the first delivered model equipped with the four-display interactive system and the first to operate under an Android Automotive and Linux dual system, which is more reliable and secure.
 
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We have also demonstrated our unique ability to continually use our proprietary technologies to improve our current and future models, offer superior user experience, and maintain our leadership position in the industry innovations. We have developed our proprietary EREV powertrain technologies and applied them to our Li ONE. We are currently investing in next-generation electric vehicle technologies, which we believe will enable us to introduce leading HPC BEVs in the future. Such BEV technologies primarily include high C-rate battery pack, high-voltage platform, thermal management system, and HPC network. We will also apply the intelligent interactive systems, including in-vehicle perception system, fusion map, vehicle cloud network (Mesh), and integrated vehicle control and computing unit, to provide premium in-vehicle experience to our users. See “Business—Technology.”
Our successful business model is demonstrated by our own manufacturing and effective quality control capabilities and our high sales and marketing efficiency. We manufacture in-house in our own Changzhou manufacturing facility and collaborate with industry-leading suppliers to ensure the high quality of our vehicles. Our engineering and manufacturing teams seamlessly collaborate with each other and streamline the feedback loop for rapid product enhancements and quality improvements. We apply rigorous standards in the vehicle development and validation process, and benchmark quality control best practices of traditional premium automakers to enhance testing and validation. Furthermore, we digitalized our user interactions and established our own direct sales and servicing network to continuously improve operating efficiency. With an integrated online and offline platform, we can achieve higher efficiency in sales and marketing than automakers that rely on third-party dealerships to reach customers. Compared with incumbent automakers’ dealership model in China, our direct sales and servicing network is more efficient due to the shortened decision-making process and less potential conflict of interests.
As an emerging automaker, we heavily rely on research and development to establish and strengthen our market position. Our Beijing and Shanghai research and development teams are developing electric vehicle technologies, such as next-generation powertrain system, high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, ultra-fast charging technologies, autonomous driving technologies, next-generation intelligent cockpit, operating systems, and computing platforms. We also maintain a production engineering and technology center in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. As of March 31, 2021, we had 1,633 employees engaging in research and development, including automotive design and engineering, intelligent systems, and autonomous driving departments. Our research and development is led by our visionary management team with an average of over 17 years of industry experience.
OUR STRENGTHS
We believe that the following strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors.
Extraordinary and trend-setting product defining capability
Our first product, Li ONE, has achieved success. We started the volume production of Li ONE in November 2019 and released the 2021 Li ONE on May 25, 2021. As of July 31, 2021, we delivered over 72,000 Li ONEs. In 2020, Li ONE ranked as the best-selling new energy SUV model in China, according to the CIC Report.
The success of Li ONE is a strong testament to our insight into user demand and our product defining capabilities. Before we launched Li ONE, we saw the demand for multi-use SUVs from families in China. Our extraordinary product defining capability enables us to design Li ONE in anticipation of the demand for multi-use SUVs from families while balancing performance, configurations, costs, and technologies. Li ONE is designed to satisfy the needs of each family member. For example, Li ONE delivers high safety performance for the family; Li ONE designs a four-display interactive system for the driver and passengers to ensure that each of them can have a convenient and joyful driving and riding
 
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experience; Li ONE offers power seats for all passengers in the second row for extra comfort; and Li ONE’s third-row seats can be used or folded to provide extra storage space for family trips. Our innovations greatly improved the user experience by introducing trend-setting vehicle designs and features, which meet or exceed user expectation resulting in a highly positive reception among our users that made us the best-selling new energy SUV model in China in 2020, according to the CIC Report.
Li ONE is a proven success catering to the needs of families in China and has effectively addressed the current challenge to BEVs in terms of energy replenishment. The success of Li ONE demonstrates our extraordinary product defining capabilities, which lay a solid foundation for the development of future models, including both EREV and BEV models.
Proprietary EREV and BEV technologies
Li ONE is the first successfully commercialized EREV in China. Our proprietary range extension system enables users to enjoy all the benefits of an electric vehicle while freeing them from the range anxiety typically associated with BEVs.
Our powertrain system, including the range extension system, is equipped with FOTA upgrades capability. With high volume closed-loop data feedback from the daily use of our vehicles, we are able to continuously optimize the control algorithm and software configuration of our range extension system through FOTA upgrades.
The solid delivery record of Li ONE demonstrates our capability to successfully leverage EREV technologies to deliver the superior performance and functionalities in our product designing, including the elimination of range anxiety, the delivery of safe and superior driving and riding experience, and the low running cost.
Furthermore, we have accumulated technologies and experience in electric-driven system, FOTA upgrades, and control algorithm optimization on our existing EREV platform. These technologies and experience will accelerate the development of our X, Whale, and Shark platforms and empower our development of future platforms.
With the goal of launching HPC BEVs, we are investing in next-generation electric vehicle technologies, including high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, and ultra-fast charging since 2020. We were one of a few automakers to have started investing in these advanced technologies in 2020. We believe that we are well-positioned to commercialize research and development in these areas. We are developing two platforms, Whale and Shark, for our future HPC BEVs, and we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year starting from 2023.
Smart vehicle solutions delivering superior user experience
Capitalizing on advanced technologies in the industry, we have developed proprietary smart vehicle solutions to significantly enhance our user experience.
Li ONE is equipped with a high-performance Qualcomm 820A platform. We also use an Android-Linux dual system for in-car interactive controls. Our signature four-display interactive system and full-coverage in-car voice control system offer superior user experiences for both drivers and passengers.
Throughout the vehicle lifecycle, FOTA upgrades enable us to continuously add new features to our smart solutions and improve system performance. We also leverage our cloud capability to remotely monitor and respond to vehicle conditions to ensure the high performance of all our vehicles.
We collaborate with global leading partners, such as Bosch, to develop our ADAS solutions. All Li ONEs are equipped with ADAS as a standard feature, which makes the driving and riding experiences much safer and easier. Beginning on June 1, 2021, all Li ONEs are equipped with navigation on ADAS
 
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(NOA) as a standard configuration, supported by two Horizon Robotics Journey 3 AI acceleration processors for autonomous driving and five fifth-generation millimeter-wave radars by Bosch.
In December 2020, we signed a memorandum of understanding for collaborative business engagement with NVIDIA Corporation and its Chinese partner. Through this partnership, we plan to launch our full-size extended-range premium smart SUV, with the powerful NVIDIA Orin SoC chipset in 2022, which makes us one of the first few automakers adopting this chipset. Meanwhile, we leverage our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities to introduce closed-loop data-driven autonomous driving solutions, and prioritize autonomous driving development based on high-frequency user scenarios. We believe that we will be one of the first automakers that deliver Level 4 autonomous driving solutions to consumers. See “—Technology—Autonomous Driving” for more information.
High efficiency in sales and marketing
We have developed our own integrated online and offline platform to interact directly with users, from sales leads to user reviews. With fully digitalized processes and continuous data-driven optimization, we have achieved much higher efficiency in sales and marketing than automakers that rely on third-party dealerships to reach customers.
We have established our own direct sales and servicing network. Compared with incumbent automakers’ dealership model in China, our sales and servicing network is more efficient due to the shortened decision-making process and less potential conflict of interests. In December 2020, our vehicle delivery per retail store was over 100, compared with an average of approximately 50 of our peers in China, according to the CIC Report.
Our high sales and marketing efficiency allowed us to achieve profitability at a relatively early stage. We achieved positive gross margin in the first full quarter of delivery (the first quarter of 2020) and achieved positive free cash flow (represents operating cash flow less capital expenditures) in the second full quarter of delivery (the second quarter of 2020), which is the fastest among our peers in China, according to the CIC Report.
Effective quality control capabilities
Quality is essential to our business. We have built our own Changzhou manufacturing base, which allows us to implement strict quality control protocols and measurements throughout the manufacturing process. Our engineering and manufacturing teams collaborate with each other seamlessly and are able to incorporate user feedback for rapid product enhancements and quality improvement.
We apply rigorous standards in the vehicle development and validation process. We benchmark quality control best practices of traditional premium automakers to enhance testing and validation.
We work with world-class suppliers with high quality standards. Our key suppliers include global leaders such as Bosch and CATL. We also implement strict quality control protocols and measurements to select and manage suppliers.
Combination of expertise from automotive, smart device, and internet industries
Our team has tremendous experience in their areas of expertise. The key members of our visionary management team have an average of over 17 years of industry experience. Mr. Li Xiang, our founder, chairman, and chief executive officer, is a successful serial entrepreneur in China’s internet industry. Before founding our company, Mr. Li founded Autohome Inc. (NYSE: ATHM) and built it to become the world’s largest automobile portal.
The senior members of our teams come from traditional and smart automotive, smart device, and internet industries. They collaborate closely and complement each other to drive innovations within our
 
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company. For example, our autonomous driving solutions are being developed by drawing on the research and development strengths of our various teams, including smart device team in terms of perception, algorithm team in terms of planning, and vehicle research and development team in terms of control.
Our culture combines the innovation mindset, fast-cycle product development, and adaptive processes of the best technology companies with the high reliability and operational excellence of the best automotive companies.
OUR STRATEGIES
We aim to become a leading player in China’s NEV market. We provide families with safe, convenient, and refined products and services. We aspire to create a sustainable path for everyone to embrace vehicle electrification. We intend to pursue the following strategies to achieve our mission.
Continue to innovate in electrification and successfully launch future EREV and BEV models
We will continue to develop new NEV models with best-in-class performance. We plan to introduce a next-generation EREV platform in our three new vehicles planned for 2022 and 2023. With next-generation EREV technologies, we aim to support longer range, higher thermal efficiency, and better NVH performance of our EREVs.
We are investing in the research and development of next-generation electric vehicle technologies including high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, and ultra-fast charging technologies. Leveraging these technologies, we are developing two platforms, Whale and Shark, for our future HPC BEVs. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year, as we believe those new HPC BEV models can also effectively eliminate the range anxiety with the next-generation technologies and deliver superior user experience, with which we will be able to cover a broader market. We aim to build a solid brand trusted by families and selectively expand our product line to offer both EREV and BEV models within our target price range.
Continue to innovate in vehicle intelligence and autonomous driving
We are dedicated to continuously improving the driving experience of our users and delivering superior Level 4 autonomous driving to users. We intend to continue to enhance our smart-vehicle solutions, and invest in progressive technologies and proprietary smart vehicle solutions, particularly by increasing computing power and bandwidth. Furthermore, we plan to further enhance our Level 2 autonomous driving currently equipped on our vehicles and equip our future models with necessary hardware compatible with in-house developed, future Level 4 autonomous driving as a standard configuration, and we will continue to optimize our autonomous driving solutions leveraging our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities.
Further expand sales network and optimize efficiency
We plan to expand to broader regions across China to reach new prospective users. We plan to open retail stores and delivery and servicing centers as on-the-ground outposts for our users, and authorize and cooperate with third-party body and paint shops to efficiently and effectively extend our service coverage.
We plan to optimize our sales and marketing efficiency by leveraging our integrated online and offline platforms. In addition, we will continue to strengthen our digitalized system to integrate and connect all stages of the vehicle sales and servicing process to achieve higher efficiency in sales and marketing than automakers that rely on third-party dealerships to reach users.
 
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Continue to pursue operational excellence and cost improvement
As vehicles continue to integrate increasingly complex and mission-critical software, we believe that ensuring the quality of that software is of increased importance. We intend to allocate a larger proportion of our development efforts to improving software quality while continuing to incrementally improve our vehicle hardware.
Meanwhile, we will continue to optimize our costs of operation. We will follow a design-for-cost philosophy in which we design vehicles from the beginning in a way that limits the all-in cost of manufacturing, selling, and distributing the end product. We will continue to minimize personalized configuration options to achieve the highest possible economies of scale. For example, personalized configurations involve extra types of raw materials and components, which in turn require increased procurement and inventory management costs resulting in sluggish inventories when the demand is unpredictable. From a manufacturing perspective, personalized configurations also hinder mass production in our facility and adversely affect economies of scale. In addition, due to our agile development and procurement processes, we expect to be able to quickly qualify new components for our vehicles as their costs decrease.
OUR VEHICLES
We design, develop, manufacture, and sell premium NEVs in China. Our first production vehicle, Li ONE, is a six-seat, large premium electric SUV equipped with a range extension system and advanced smart vehicle solutions. We started volume production of Li ONE in November 2019 in our own Changzhou manufacturing facility. On May 25, 2021, we released the 2021 Li ONE. We plan to launch our second model, a full-size premium smart extended-range electric SUV, in 2022, and two more extended-range electric SUV models in 2023. All three future EREV models will leverage the X platform technologies and share same powertrain and chassis design. We are developing our two more HPC BEV platforms, Whale and Shark. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch two new HPC BEV models each year.
Li ONE
Li ONE is a large premium smart extended-range electric SUV. This six-seater, which has a 5,030-millimeter length with a 2,935-millimeter wheelbase, and offers a combination of long range, high performance, efficient energy consumption, and flexible power supplies.

Long Range. Li ONE has an NEDC range of 1,080 kilometers. Its 40.5-kilowatt hour lithium-ion battery pack is capable of supporting a purely electrically powered range of 188 kilometers.

High Performance. Equipped with all-wheel drive and two electric motors, Li ONE is able to accelerate from zero to 100 kilometers per hour in 6.5 seconds. Its EREV powertrain can deliver a maximum of 245 kilowatts of power and 455 Newton meters of torque. The performance of Li ONE’s powertrain is comparable to that of an ICE vehicle powered by a 3.0-liter, six-cylinder, turbo-charged engine.

Efficient Energy Consumption. The high-efficiency EREV powertrain and the advanced thermal management system help Li ONE achieve a fuel consumption rate of 6.05 liters per 100 kilometers and an electricity consumption rate of 17.7 kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers, according to the CIC Report.

Flexible Power Supplies. Li ONE’s energy can be replenished by slow charging, which takes approximately six hours for a full charge with a seven-kilowatt charger, fast charging, which takes approximately 30 minutes to increase the displayed state of charge from 20% to 80% with a 60-kilowatt charger, and refueling. It can operate even when consumers have no access to charging infrastructure. We currently offer three driving modes to cover different use case scenarios for our users.
 
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At an MSRP of RMB338,000 (approximately US$52,000), Li ONE includes over 40 premium and technology features in one standard package, which are typically only included on vehicles with an MSRP above RMB600,000 (approximately US$92,000) in China. Users only need to choose exterior and interior colors and wheel style.

Premium Features: Napa leather cover, seat heating, lumbar support, and massage functions for first- and second-row seats, extra leg room for third-row passengers, laminated acoustic glass, silver-plated heat insulated windshield, and tires with acoustic technology.

Technology Features: NOA supported by rich sensors and redundant capable hardware along with full-stack in-house developed software, four-display interactive system with advanced navigation and entertainment applications, full-coverage in-car voice control system, remote mobile control, and FOTA upgrades.
Li ONE is equipped with comprehensive active and passive safety solutions. Li ONE includes the following key safety measures:

Active Safety. Our ADAS includes eight key safety functions: automatic emergency braking, forward collision warning, intelligent headlight control, lane departure warning, blind spot detection, door open warning, front cross traffic alert, and rear cross traffic alert. For a discussion of key features of ADAS, see “—Technology—Autonomous Driving.”

Ultra-High Strength, Heavy-Duty Steel-Aluminum Body. Li ONE uses a strong heavy-duty steel-aluminum body with the torsional stiffness of 31,000 Newton meters per degree.

Passenger Protection. Li ONE is equipped with seven air bags for comprehensive protection to the driver and passengers.

Battery Safety. The battery pack is securely sealed in a high-strength aluminum alloy casing that is waterproof and dustproof at IP67D, and is further protected by four longitudinal anti-collision beams. We have also implemented a battery management system that automatically monitors temperature, power output, and other status of the battery pack.
In January 2021, we announced the safety evaluation results for Li ONE published by the C-IASI Management Center based on crash tests. Li ONE achieved the G rating, the highest safety rating, in three out of four evaluation categories: occupant safety, pedestrian safety, and assistance safety. In the category of crashworthiness and repair economy, Li ONE received an M rating, one of the top results received by large premium SUVs. Also in January 2021, Li ONE received five-star ratings for both volatile organic compounds & vehicle odor intensity, and electromagnetic radiation in the C-AHI assessment by China Automotive Engineering Research Institute Co., Ltd. In February 2021, Li ONE achieved a five-star safety rating in the latest C-NCAP test released by China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd. Li ONE received a weighted score of 92.2%, including 94.73% on occupant protection, 72.89% on pedestrian protection, and 100% on active safety. As of March 31, 2021, Li ONE was the only large SUV model that received top ratings under all of the C-IASI, C-AHI, and C-NCAP, according to the CIC Report.
Li ONE demonstrates distinctive strengths in the following key aspects as compared to other vehicle models in the same price range as well as competing NEV models.

Range. Li ONE’s BEV peers typically have an NEDC range of approximately 400 to 500 kilometers. Enabled by the EREV powertrain, Li ONE’s NEDC range of 1,080 kilometers is much longer, compared with an NEDC range of approximately 330 to 860 kilometers of other EREV peers.

Power Supply. Other competing NEVs generally have two energy replenishment options—fast charging and slow charging—and some NEVs can also replenish energy by battery swap. Li ONE can replenish electricity by fast charging or slow charging and replenish petrol fuel by refueling,
 
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and can operate even when users have no access to charging infrastructure, thereby completely eliminating range anxiety and addressing the challenge of inadequate charging infrastructure in China. Li ONE has a purely electrically powered range of 188 kilometers and a range powered by fuel tank of 892 kilometers, which result in an NEDC range of 1,080 kilometers in total when powered by the EREV powertrain.

Energy Consumption Level. Li ONE is able to achieve a fuel consumption rate of 6.05 liters per 100 kilometers, outperforming other comparable SUV models with a fuel consumption rate typically ranging from approximately 7.9 to 9.1 liters per 100 kilometers. The electricity consumption rate of 17.7 kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers is also comparable to that of the BEV peers, which typically ranges from 16.5 to 18.3 kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers, according to the CIC Report.

Safety. As of March 31, 2021, Li ONE was the only large SUV that has received top ratings under all of the C-IASI, the C-AHI, and the C-NCAP, according to the CIC Report.
Currently, our Li ONE users can benefit from vehicle-related tax exemptions in China, including vehicle purchase tax and vehicle and vessel tax, and local government policies in favor of NEVs in certain cities in China, such as no quota limitations for vehicle license plate application and exemption from traffic restrictions.
Future Vehicles
In the future, we plan to develop new vehicles with new generations of EREV or BEV powertrain and smart technologies to target an even broader market. We plan to launch a full-size premium smart extended-range electric SUV in 2022 and two more SUV models in 2023. They are currently under development and will be equipped with our next-generation EREV powertrain. We are developing two platforms, Whale and Shark, for our future HPC BEVs. Starting from 2023, we plan to launch at least two new HPC BEV models each year.
Starting from 2022, all our new vehicle models will be equipped with necessary hardware compatible with Level 4 autonomous driving as a standard configuration, and we will continue to optimize our autonomous driving solutions leveraging our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities.
Platform
Powertrain
Energy Replenishment
Positioning
Autonomous Driving
Hardware
X EREV
(next-generation)
Slow Charging
Fast Charging
Refueling
Premium SUVs Level 4
(standard configuration)
Whale HPC BEV Slow Charging
Fast Charging
Ultra-Fast Charging
Space Priority Level 4
(standard configuration)
Shark HPC BEV Slow Charging
Fast Charging
Ultra-Fast Charging
Performance Priority Level 4
(standard configuration)
The following diagram illustrates the development roadmap with the expected time of delivery of our future electric vehicle models.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-ph_plat4clr.jpg]
Leveraging the know-how accumulated from our delivery and servicing of Li ONEs, we plan to equip our new vehicle models with optimized software (such as control algorithm) and hardware (new EREV and HPC BEV powertrain systems) as well as enhanced NVH performance. In addition, the planned adoption of high-voltage platform in our future HPC BEV models could further enhance their driving range by reducing energy consumption. Furthermore, our intelligent cockpit and autonomous driving technologies have been designed with expandability and transferability across models, which allow us to smoothly migrate our design language, interaction experience, and integrated systems into our future models to further improve the intelligence level of all future models.
TECHNOLOGY
EREV Powertrain
We have developed our proprietary EREV technologies and applied it to our first model, Li ONE, and our 2021 Li ONE released on May 25, 2021. An EREV is purely driven by its electric motor, but its energy source and power come from both its battery pack and range extension system. Using EREV technologies, Li ONE’s energy can be replenished by slow charging, fast charging, and refueling. Because Li ONE can operate even when users have no access to charging infrastructure, it completely eliminates range anxiety for users.
Benefiting from its all-electric-driven propulsion, Li ONE offers a similarly high-quality driving experience to that of BEVs, such as smooth acceleration, and maintains equivalent NVH performance compared to other premium SUV models manufactured by the Company’s industry peers, according to the CIC Report. The overall energy consumption level of Li ONE is much lower than that of ICE vehicles in a similar class, as a result of its high energy efficiency range extension system.
Li ONE users also enjoy lower total running costs compared with ICE vehicle owners, including lower aftermarket service costs and energy consumption costs. In addition, Li ONE users can also benefit from vehicle-related tax exemptions in China and local government policies in favor of NEVs in certain cities in China, such as no quota limitations for vehicle license plate application and exemption from traffic restrictions.
With all of the foregoing, we believe that our EREV technologies will help accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles in China and contribute to China’s national initiatives to build a low-carbon-emission society. For consumers, we believe that Li ONE has a competitive advantage over ICE vehicles in terms of performance, economy, and user experience.
 
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Li ONE’s EREV powertrain primarily consists of an electric propulsion system and a range extension system. We developed in-house the core controlling software of both systems.

Electric Propulsion System. The electric propulsion system consists of front and rear dual electric motors and a battery pack. Li ONE is equipped with a front electric motor with a maximum of 100 kilowatts of power and 240 Newton meters of torque, and a rear electric motor with a maximum of 145 kilowatts of power and 215 Newton meters of torque. Li ONE uses a 40.5-kilowatt hour lithium-ion battery pack, placed between the front and rear axles. An in-house developed software controls the functioning of the motors and the batteries, enabling efficient battery management, smooth shifts of driving modes, and kinetic energy recovery.

Range Extension System. The range extension system consists of a generator, a turbo-charged engine, and a fuel tank. It has a 1.2-liter, 3-cylinder, turbo-charged engine that can deliver a maximum of 96 kilowatts of power to propel the generator. The 100-kilowatt generator can propel the vehicle or charge the battery pack. The fuel tank has 55 liters of capacity. The range extension system consumes fuel and generates electricity. We developed in-house a control panel to manage the starting and stopping of the range extension system and to control the charge of the battery pack, and a thermal management system to achieve an optimal in-car heat allocation through optimization algorithms.
With our research and development initiatives and substantial performance testing, our proprietary EREV control strategies are optimized to balance the dynamic performance and the NVH performance in our vehicles. We are in the process of developing our second-generation EREV platform, which will utilize new technologies and enhance integration to further achieve optimized performance.
BEV Technologies and Models in Development
We are currently investing in next-generation electric vehicle technologies, which we believe will enable us to introduce leading HPC BEVs in the future. We believe that in order for the HPC BEV platform to be widely adopted, it must provide users with an extraordinary battery charging experience in terms of charging time and accessibility comparable to those of ICE vehicles. Such BEV technologies primarily include high C-rate battery pack, high-voltage platform, thermal management system, and high-power charging (HPC) network.

High C-Rate Battery Pack. We are applying new technologies and processes to the development of high C-rate battery cells with 4C fast charging capability. In addition, we will apply highly integrated lightweight design, high collision safety design, and efficient thermal management design in the high C-rate battery pack.

High-Voltage Platform. We plan to design a high-voltage platform utilizing a high power density electric powertrain system, leveraging electronic components based on third-generation wide bandgap SiC semiconductor materials and other advanced designs and technologies.

Thermal Management System. Our thermal management system will use carbon dioxide (CO2) as the cold medium solution and we plan to adopt advanced sealing and high-pressure resistance design and proprietary control strategies. The thermal management system is designed to further address winter heating and mileage problems of NEVs.

HPC Network. We are currently developing a high-performance HPC network to integrate the power storage function with charging piles and to achieve a superior charging experience.
Intelligent Systems
We design our vehicles to provide premium user experiences to families in China through smart interaction and connectivity. We believe that a smart cabin is a future trend for the automotive industry, and we are dedicated to applying smart interactive systems to provide premium in-vehicle experiences.
 
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According to the CIC Report, Li ONE is equipped with more advanced vehicle intelligent systems compared to comparable models. Our intelligent cabin initiatives feature a four-display interactive system, full-coverage in-car voice control system, and FOTA upgrades. We self-designed the core software and functions of the four-display interactive system and the full-coverage in-car voice control system, and procured components from third-party suppliers based on our specifications. In addition, we are also developing additional intelligent interactive systems that can be applied to our future vehicles.
Four-Display Interactive System
The signature four-display interactive system delivers convenient, user-friendly services to drivers and passengers via the instrument panel cluster, central information display, front passenger display, and central control panel. We use a Linux-Android Automotive dual system architecture, and the two sets of systems are connected but can still operate independently. The Linux-based system is primarily used for the vehicle driving control, and the Android Automotive-based system is primarily used for in-car entertainment and interaction, for which we developed in-house a user interface interactions between the displays. For instance, under the navigation mode, the navigation app on the central infotainment display can project the important route and traffic information to the instrument panel cluster to ensure better driving safety and convenience. We apply Android-based hibernation and activation algorithms to ensure quick activation of the four displays and their systems. We also equip Li ONE with a high-performance Qualcomm 820A chip. Li ONE is the first delivered model equipped with the four-display interactive system in the world, according to the CIC Report.
Li ONE — Four-Display Interactive System
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2121015d13-fc_centralbw.jpg]
Full-Coverage in-Car Voice Control System
We also deploy full-coverage in-car voice control system that uses four omni-directional high-sensitivity digital microphones.
This voice control system provides a comprehensive solution for in-car interaction. Passengers can check routes, make phone calls, listen to music and other audio programs, configure system settings, control the vehicle windows, and initiate other activities by talking naturally in the vehicle. The system is smart enough to respond swiftly to frequently used commands. The advanced natural language processing algorithms are able to analyze the human voice with adequate accuracy to enhance the interaction quality of the system. We developed in-house a front-end voice access platform to enable
 
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functions such as voice signal de-noising, acoustic echo cancellation, sound source location, and voice isolation and enhancement to provide better user experience.
FOTA Upgrades
Our vehicle systems are designed with extendibility through FOTA upgrades, which improve system performance and enable users to access new features. Our FOTA upgrades can also automatically roll back if there are issues during the upgrading process and retry later. Our FOTA upgrades support concurrent upgrading and driving to provide maximum flexibility to users. Through FOTA upgrades, we are able to add more features to our in-car interactive and entertainment systems, improve powertrain performance, and optimize vehicle and system control algorithms. In December 2020, we introduced our 2.0 vehicle system update for Li ONE via FOTA upgrade, which included a variety of comprehensive improvements in performance, functionalities, and user experience with respect to smart interactive systems, ADAS, and other vehicle controls and functions. Li ONE completed 11 FOTA upgrades in 2020, enhancing driving quality and energy efficiency, optimizing user interface and operating experience, and increasing in-car content offerings.
Future Intelligent Interactive Systems
In addition to the above smart interactive systems that are currently present in our vehicles, we are developing the following smart interactive systems and will apply them to provide premium in-vehicle experiences.

In-Vehicle Perception System. The system is built upon a series of sensors installed through three-dimensional modeling. Different passengers can access the same set of functions and features with varying experience.

Fusion Map. The fusion map integrates the autonomous driving map and the navigation map, which can provide users with a more refined experience with the maps. It also can seamlessly connect the autonomous driving sections and the non-autonomous driving sections.

Vehicle Cloud Network (Mesh). The new generation of vehicle cloud system, Mesh, enables inter-communication among the vehicle, the cloud, and the mobile application in a distributed grid. Even within an intermittent network, all terminals can maintain consistency across the board. As the communication infrastructure of the application layer, the new generation of Mesh technology greatly reduces the development complexity of software for the vehicle, the cloud, and the mobile application, and enhances software quality and user experience.

Integrated Vehicle Control and Computing Unit. We are developing a highly integrated vehicle control and computing unit, or XCU, to enhance vehicle hardware performance and smart vehicle control. The XCU executes cross-domain control calculations among the vehicle powertrain, chassis, central gateway, and body, while cooperating with cloud platforms and other on-board computing units to create smart vehicle control. The XCU is designed with high reliability, high real-time execution, and high data throughput capabilities.
Autonomous Driving
Li ONE is equipped with ADAS, our enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving solution. Our ADAS is optimized and adapted based on the complex road conditions in China. Our current ADAS solution includes over 10 driver assistance features, including adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, automatic parking assist, forward collision warning, intelligent headlight control, lane change assist, lane departure warning, lane keep assist, and side view assist. By the second half of 2021, we will establish our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities that integrates perception, planning, and control. On May 25, 2021, we released the 2021 Li ONE equipped with NOA as a standard configuration, which will be made available to the users through OTA beginning in the third quarter of
 
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2021. Supported by two Horizon Robotics Journey 3 AI acceleration processors for autonomous driving, five fifth-generation millimeter-wave radars made by Bosch, and an 8-megapixel front-view video camera boasting 4K definition, our NOA enables on and off ramp, automatic adaptive acceleration, and lane changes on certain limited access-roads, as well as Fully Automated Parking Assist (FAPA), which is vision-based automatic parking feature.
In addition, we have developed our own proprietary autonomous driving data platform to enhance users’ autonomous driving experience. The autonomous driving data platform collects driving data via a “shadow mode” in which the driving decisions and patterns of an actual human driver in various scenarios will be encrypted and uploaded to the cloud database of the autonomous driving data platform where the data will be examined and analyzed via artificial intelligence algorithms and data mining to optimize the autonomous driving system.
We are dedicated to delivering superior Level 4 autonomous driving to users. We plan to equip our full-size premium smart extended-range electric SUV planned for 2022 with the Level 4 autonomous driving hardware as a standard configuration, including the powerful NVIDIA Orin-X SoC chipset with 508 trillion operations per second, high-definition cameras, LiDAR system, millimeter-wave radars, and safety redundant electronic architecture and chassis control system. To realize the development plan, we have continued to build up our research and development team in autonomous driving and made significant progress in recruiting senior experts and managers in the area.
In December 2020, we signed a memorandum of understanding for collaborative business engagement with NVIDIA Cooperation and its Chinese partner, Huizhou Desay SV Auto. NVIDIA Corporation is a global enterprise in the business of providing graphics processing unit (GPU) technologies with specific expertise in AI and deep learning, and Huizhou Desay SV Auto is a leading automotive electronics product supplier in China. The memorandum of understanding for collaborative business engagement lays a solid foundation for us to continue to develop Level 4 autonomous driving solutions with the technical support of NVIDIA Corporation and Huizhou Desay SV. We plan to launch our full-size extended-range premium smart SUV, with the powerful NVIDIA Orin SoC in 2022, which makes us one of the first few automakers adopting this chipset.
Meanwhile, we leverage our full-stack proprietary software development capabilities to introduce closed-loop data-driven autonomous driving solutions, and prioritize autonomous driving development based on high-frequency scenarios.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
As an emerging automaker, we heavily rely on research and development to establish and strengthen our market position. We conduct our research and development activities relating to intelligent vehicle technologies primarily in our headquarters in Beijing, China. On May 1, 2021, our new research and development center in Shanghai, China started its operation. Our Beijing and Shanghai teams are developing electric vehicle technologies, such as next- generation powertrain system, high C-rate battery, high-voltage platform, ultra-fast charging technologies, autonomous driving technologies, next-generation intelligent cockpit, operating systems, and computing platforms. We also maintain a production engineering and technology center in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. As of March 31, 2021, we had 1,633 employees engaging in research and development, including automotive design and engineering, intelligent systems, and autonomous driving departments.
We will strengthen our cooperation with top universities that possess industry-leading technologies such as high-voltage platforms, ultra-fast charging technologies, autonomous driving, next-generation intelligent cockpits, operating systems, and computing units, and other technologies related to our business that would allow us to enhance our intelligent vehicle technologies. Taking advantage of the establishment of our research and developments centers located in Beijing and Shanghai, we plan to recruit more top talents.
 
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Vehicle
Our vehicle research and development team covers all areas of vehicle design, development, and production from concept to completion, including interior and exterior design, body design and engineering, electrical engineering and integration, battery engineering, powertrain technologies, vehicle integration, performance testing, and technology and patent management.
Members of our vehicle research and development team have an average industry experience of approximately ten years in their respective fields, many of whom come from leading global and domestic automakers such as Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, and SAIC Motor.
Intelligent System
Our intelligence system research and development team includes engineers with backgrounds in Internet, artificial intelligence (AI), and smart device. They support our multidisciplinary research efforts on intelligence, connectivity, user interface design, and other areas.
Autonomous Driving
We have a dedicated autonomous driving research and development team. We have implemented a comprehensive plan of developing proprietary autonomous driving technologies for our vehicles. Leveraging our capabilities in system development, algorithms, simulation, solutions development, and system integration, we plan to advance from Level 2 autonomous driving to Level 4 autonomous driving.
VEHICLE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
We have developed significant in-house capabilities in the design and engineering of NEVs and various components and systems. Our vehicle styling team, which consists of experienced designers from reputable global automakers, has defined “halo” as the design language for our Li Auto vehicle family. We have in-house vehicle development capabilities with core competence in NEV powertrain architecture, chassis, and battery, motor, and electric control systems. In particular, we have developed substantial expertise in design, development, and manufacturing of battery management systems and vehicle control units. We utilize computer-aided engineering simulation analytics throughout our design and engineering process and conduct performance validation and reliability testing in our seven laboratories. Furthermore, our engineering and manufacturing teams work alongside our suppliers and partners in designing key components in order to achieve cost optimization throughout the research and development process and thereafter.
SALES AND MARKETING
Digitalized Sales and Marketing
We have developed our own integrated online and offline platform to interact directly with users, from sales leads to user reviews.
We bring a steady stream of sales leads through three channels: retail stores, media platforms and user word-of-mouth. We convert these leads to registered users in our Li Auto system, which consists of our official website, the Li Auto App, and our WeChat mini-program and official account. The system automatically establishes a user behavior model, records and analyzes the conversion efficiency of each user from lead to registration, and to transaction. Through our data analytics, we constantly optimize the sources of sales leads, product presentation and sales processes. At the same time, through user engagement within our online system, we encourage owners of our vehicles to voluntarily promote our vehicles, generating high-quality sales leads. As a result, a flywheel is formed, leading to higher conversion efficiency and lower user acquisition costs.
 
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Once the user places an order, we provide the user with delivery, finance, and after-sales service through our sales and servicing network. Through accumulation of vehicle operation insights in the closed-loop process, we improve the quality and efficiency of our services, reduce personnel-related expenses and investment in stores and delivery centers, and ultimately reduce offline service costs.
Direct Sales and Servicing Network
We build and operate our own sales and distribution infrastructure and sell our vehicles directly to our users. We believe that our direct sales model not only improves economic and operational efficiency significantly, but also provides our users with superior purchasing experiences consistent with our values and brand image. We have an efficient sales and servicing network and achieved an average of over 100 vehicles delivered per store in December 2020, compared with an average of approximately 50 of our peers in China, according to the CIC Report.
As of July 31, 2021, we had 109 retail stores across major cities in China. Users visit a store for vehicle check-up, test-drive, and order placement. We locate our retail stores in selected shopping malls where our targeted users are likely to patronize, instead of central business districts or landmark buildings.
As of July 31, 2021, we had 42 delivery centers and 29 servicing centers across major cities in China. Delivery and servicing centers perform in-person delivery and maintenance and repairs, and are generally located in the suburbs with convenient transportation.
Prospective users can place orders by paying a deposit of RMB5,000, which becomes non-refundable after 24 hours, via our Li Auto App or our website. Their orders also automatically become confirmed orders after 24 hours following the deposit payment, and no additional deposits are required from the user prior to delivery. Our delivery specialists will then follow up with the users about pre-delivery matters, such as financing and home charger installations. Once the vehicles arrive at logistics centers, our delivery specialists will contact the users to arrange delivery. For users from cities without a Li Auto delivery and servicing center, we can also provide remote delivery services.
Pricing Strategies
We price our vehicles from both demand and supply perspectives with consideration of various factors. On the one hand, we take a user-oriented approach to consider the budget of our target user group and the competitive market position of our vehicles at a given price. We also take a brand- and product-oriented approach to consider the user expectation for the pricing of premium large SUVs under the current competitive landscape where we are positioned. On the other hand, we price our vehicles with reference to market dynamics and our financial performance, and consider our research and development expenses, BOM costs, manufacturing costs, and the gross profit of the vehicles that we may achieve taking into the relevant costs and expenses.
Marketing
We have been able to generate significant media coverage of our company and our vehicles. Our principal marketing goals are to build brand awareness and loyalty, generate sales leads, and integrate user input into the product development process.
We focus our marketing efforts on generating word-of-mouth referrals and creating content for marketing on new media and short-video social media platforms with the goal of increasing our product exposure and building our reputation. Our marketing content includes high-quality videos developed in-house, which elaborate on our product specifications and technologies. We also publish voluntary referrals from our users and videos created by key opinion leaders in areas across technology, travel, and maternal and infant products, all of which represent real user experiences and enhance the popularity of our vehicles. We also leverage the data-driven features of short-video social media platforms to accurately
 
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target users by marketing on leading platforms such as Douyin, and Kuaishou. The popularity, efficiency and interactive nature of short-video enable wide reach of our content marketing within a short period of time. We believe that the combination of our high-quality content and the optimization of our marketing channels, in addition to the strong word-of-mouth referrals of our users and our digitalized direct sales system, forms a virtuous cycle from content marketing to sales leads, and in turn to word-of-mouth referrals, which enables us to achieve continued brand exposure and attract high-quality potential users at relatively low marketing spending.
SERVICING AND WARRANTY
We offer a five-year or 100,000-kilometer limited warranty for new vehicles, and an eight-year or 120,000-kilometer limited warranty for battery packs, electric motors, and electric motor controllers. Currently, we also offer each initial owner extended lifetime warranty, subject to certain conditions. We also provide owners of Li ONE free roadside assistance during the warranty coverage 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
We accrue a warranty reserve for the vehicles sold, which includes the best estimates of projected costs to repair or replace vehicles under warranties. These estimates are primarily based on the estimates of the nature, frequency, and average costs of future claims. We reevaluate the adequacy of the warranty accrual on a regular basis. See “Financial Information—Critical Accounting Policies—Product Warranties.” As of March 31, 2021, our accrued warranty amounted to RMB317.7 million (US$48.5 million).
Owners can have their vehicles serviced either in our servicing centers or Li Auto- authorized body and paint shops. We had a network of 176 servicing centers and Li Auto-authorized body and paint shops covering 134 cities in China as of July 31, 2021.
Value-Added Services
We offer a suite of value-added services to serve our users’ needs and keep them engaged.
To enrich the ownership experiences of our users, we have launched our Li Plus paid membership program currently priced at RMB999 per year. Membership benefits span after-sale services, third-party in-car entertainment services, and life style components. The program currently has four categories of benefits, including paid regular servicing of the vehicle, free vehicle pick-ups and deliveries, unlimited high-speed data plan, and discounts on our service and products offerings. Currently, we also award membership points for successful referrals, which can be used to redeem merchandise in our online store. After we deliver more vehicles, collect more data, and have a better understanding of our users’ needs, we may continuously add more services into the program. Approximately half of our Li Plus paid membership was awarded along with the sales of Li ONE to users without additional charge and the remaining was redeemed by users in our online store using the customer loyalty points.
We also offer certain services embedded within the sale of vehicles, including installation of charging stalls, and vehicle internet connection services.
We cooperate with several commercial banks to facilitate auto finance for our users. We do not charge any financing service fees and are not obligated to facilitate any financing. A month prior to delivery, our delivery specialist will open the auto finance applications, if needed, and the users can complete the procedures on our Li Auto App. As the commercial banks handle the auto finance applications, our users can track the status of their applications on our Li Auto App. Users can also make payments for their purchases on the Li Auto App.
We work with auto insurance companies to facilitate our users’ purchase of a variety of auto insurance products, which can be handled by the delivery specialist assigned to each user.
 
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MANUFACTURING, SUPPLY CHAIN, AND QUALITY CONTROL
Manufacturing
We are listed in the catalog of vehicle manufacturers of the MIIT and we manufacture Li ONE in our own Changzhou factory. The Changzhou manufacturing base covers an area of 50 hectares and has constructed shop floor space of approximately 185,000 square meters. It consists of four workshops, stamping, welding, painting, and assembly, and an office building. The current production capacity is 100,000 units per year with a utilization rate of approximately 36% in 2020. Our production capacity can be expanded to 200,000 units per year with additional machinery and production line installation in 2022. We are planning on the reconfiguration of our Changzhou factory for our new model pipeline, especially the full-size premium SUV based on the X platform to be launched in 2022.
The production in our factory is highly automated. We use linear seven-axis robots for our stamping line, which is capable of switching tooling with the press of a button and mixed production of steel and aluminum parts. In the stamping workshop, the high-speed flexible manufacturing line first produces large body panels before fully-automated, quality inspection blue-ray scanning performs 100% of the dimensional inspections on them. In the welding workshop, we achieve 100% automation for all welding spots. In the painting workshop, we use 28 painting robots that ensure consistency of coatings on the body.
Our production management related IT systems and automated production equipment work together, which significantly improve our operating efficiency. For example, screw tightening is critical component for the quality of Li ONE. There are over 1,300 tightening points on Li ONE, of which over 500 are critical. All tightening values are monitored and controlled by the systems to ensure perfect matching of torque value and angle for tightening and the vehicle model. All tightening values and data are uploaded to our manufacturing execution system for monitoring, which can be traced back for over ten years.
Supply Chain
We collaborate with over 190 suppliers for over 1,900 sourced parts to build our Li ONE. We expect to benefit from economies of scale with our production volume ramp-up. We have developed close partnership with suppliers for key parts, such as CATL for battery packs, Inovance for electric motor controllers, Saint-Gobain for windshields, and SDS for multi-mode hybrid transmissions. We consider these companies as our major suppliers. We have maintained relationships with each of these major suppliers since 2019. Pursuant to our agreements with these major suppliers, we generally co-develop customized components with them and then source these components from the suppliers. We enjoy volume-based pricing discounts even though the agreements do not typically include a fixed purchase quantity. We own the IP rights for these co-developed components pursuant to the agreements.
Although we reserve the flexibility to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other players in our industry, we purchase many of the components from a single source, including the multi-mode hybrid transmissions from SDS, for management and operational efficiency. We have, however, pre-qualification measures to identify alternative suppliers as back-up. In light of the market condition and our precautionary measures, we believe that the use of single-source suppliers, which is customary in the industry, does not impose imminent threat to our business sustainability.
We make sourcing decisions taking into account quality, cost, and lead-time. Our supplier quality engineers are responsible for managing the production processes of suppliers to ensure that our quality standards are met. APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) and PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) procedures are executed with high standard. We periodically renew and update the terms of our cooperation contracts with our suppliers, including the quantity and price of the supplies, on an ongoing basis to make appropriate adjustments in accordance with historical data.
 
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We implemented a supplier relationship management system to collaborate with our suppliers for forecasting, ordering, receipt and return of goods. Our supply management team works closely with suppliers to ensure the availability of required supply.
We closely monitor the supply of our key components, including semiconductor chips. In light of the global chip shortage following the disruptions to semiconductor manufacturers since October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an increase in global demand for personal computers for work-from-home economies, we established a dedicated team to proactively coordinate directly with our chip suppliers to procure sufficient supply. We have entered into supply reserve arrangements with some of our suppliers, including chip suppliers, pursuant to which the suppliers agree to provide us with a safety stock inventory for the components that they provide. We have also reached understanding with many of our suppliers, including chip suppliers, to have them inform us promptly if there is an upcoming shortage of suppliers in advance. Furthermore, CIC, our industry consultant, is of the view that there are alternative suppliers of chips in the market and we have also searched for alternate chips since October 2020 and diversified our supply channels by connecting directly with suppliers of chips to anchor supplies. We have established internal mechanism to forecast the necessary level of chip supply and adjust our inventory level more frequently. Although the semiconductor chips we purchase include components from single-source suppliers, such practice is in accordance with the industry norm since it improves operational efficiency and the validation period for switching to other chips or multiple chips is usually prolonged. As of the Latest Practicable Date, we had not experienced any disruption in the manufacture of our vehicles due to a shortage in the supply of chips or any other major components. Considering the absence of any disruption in the manufacture of our vehicles, the availability of alternate chip suppliers, and our supply reserve arrangements and understanding with our chip suppliers, we believe the recent shortage of chips would not materially and adversely affect our business operation and financial performance. However, we cannot assure you that we could continue to procure sufficient supply of chips at reasonable cost. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry—The global shortage in the supply of semiconductor chips may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.”
Quality Control
Benchmarking the best-in-class practices in the industry, we have developed our own quality management system spanning the full lifecycle of a vehicle, from product design to after-sale services, covering hardware, software, and service.
For Li ONE testing and validation, we have maintained over 1,700 vehicle testing measures, including over 500 critical testing measures, to ensure high quality. As of March 31, 2020, we had performed over 8.3 million kilometers of road tests including enhanced reliability test on proving grounds and vehicle durability test on roads for general users. The tests cover road environment tests under extreme working conditions such as extreme temperatures and humidity as well as high altitudes and tests of ADAS performance. We not only resolve quality issues as they emerge, but also preemptively assess and prevent issues. We studied over 1,000 issues frequently seen in market recalls and confirmed our solutions are adequate. Before the volume production of Li ONE, we conducted special inspection and prevented 19 issues that other automakers have encountered.
Effective on November 7, 2020, we voluntarily recalled 10,469 Li ONEs produced on or before June 1, 2020 to replace, free of charge, the control arm ball joint of the front suspension of these Li ONEs in accordance with the requirements by the SAMR. Li ONEs produced after June 1, 2020 are already equipped with an upgraded version of the control arm ball joint of the front suspension. As of the date of this prospectus, we completed over 98.5% of all the replacements and are not aware of any material accidents due to any defects in the control arm ball joint of the front suspension being replaced.
 
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VEHICLE DELIVERY
The following table sets forth our cumulative vehicle delivery data as of the end of the periods indicated.
December
2019
March
2020
June
2020
September
2020
December
2020
March
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Li ONE delivered(1)(2) 973 3,869 10,473 19,133 33,597 46,176 63,751 72,340
Notes:
(1)
Excludes vehicles delivered for testing and other non-sales purposes.
(2)
The Li ONEs we sold during the Track Record Period were previous generation of Li ONEs with an NEDC range of 800 kilometers prior to our release of 2021 Li ONE.
In the fourth quarter of 2019, the first, second, third, and fourth quarter of 2020, the first quarter and second quarter of 2021, a total of 973, 2,896, 6,604, 8,660, 14,464, 12,579, and 17,575 Li ONEs were delivered, respectively. We delivered 8,589 Li ONEs in July 2021.
SEASONALITY
The sales volume of passenger vehicles typically declines over January and February, particularly around the Chinese New Year, gradually climbs over the spring and summer months, and typically culminates in the last three months of the calendar year. Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to judge the exact nature or extent of the seasonality of our business. Also, any unusually severe weather conditions in some markets may impact demand for our vehicles.
USER PRIVACY AND DATA SECURITY
During the course of sales and marketing of our vehicles, certain personal information is directly collected by us from users based on the services the users select, and mainly includes name, email address, mobile number, ID number, and other personal information relating to the usage of our vehicles. We also directly collect users’ personal data, including transportation records and behavioral data for enhancing our autonomous driving technologies and infrastructures.
With our Surveying and Mapping Qualification Certificate, we accumulate certain data related to GPS and autonomous driving in compliance with relevant laws and regulations. We have obtained consents from our users to collect, store, and transmit data for the development of our autonomous driving system, such as location information, road conditions, and driving pattern. Our data privacy policy agreed by our users describes our data practices in the development of autonomous driving system, and we do not use any data for any purpose other than those specified in the data privacy policy with our users.
Aside from purchasing certain components, such as chipset and sensors, we are self-developing our autonomous driving system in a full-stack, closed-loop manner and we plan to do so in the foreseeable future. We store in-house all the data accumulated in developing autonomous driving technologies. Neither do we currently have any data sharing arrangement with external parties, nor does our business involve any cross-border data transfer. In particular, we have adopted and implemented strict internal protocols to ensure the security of map data we collect in the development of autonomous driving technologies in accordance with PRC laws. We do not provide any map data to or share such data with any foreign individuals and entities, or any foreign-invested enterprises established in China. We do not allow any unauthorized person to obtain such map data in the relevant technology tests and road tests. Pursuant to the PRC Law on Guarding State Secrets, the relevant authorities must mark state secrets on all the media that carry information involving state secrets, and if the information does not involve state secrets, it should not be marked as state secrets. When engaging in the aforementioned business, we did
 
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not see any state secret marks on the relevant media. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that the data we collect and store, including the map data, does not give rise to any state secret concern in any material respect. Based on the foregoing, our PRC Legal Advisor is of the opinion that our practice in the use of data complies with the relevant regulations and rules relating to state secret for our existing and future data.
With the level of intelligence and connectivity of vehicles, and our highly integrated system that interacts with the users, we place strong emphasis on data security and protection. We have adopted and implemented a strict internal control system focusing on data security and personal information protection. The privacy policies with respect to the collection, use, and disclosure of user data have been posted on the websites and mobile apps that we operate, which inform the users of the purposes, methods, and scope of collecting and using their personal information. We do not use users’ data for any purpose that has not been consented by the users or is not necessary for our provision of services to the users. We have implemented procedures to regulate our employees’ actions in relation to user data in order to protect user privacy and data security. We also have adopted a strict access control mechanism to protect user privacy while meeting business requirements. In addition, we employ a variety of technical solutions to prevent and detect risks in user privacy and data security, such as encryption and log audit. Our internal cloud data security team as well as external data security experts constantly examine and test our data security system to ensure that any vulnerability identified is fixed immediately. Our user database can only be accessed by our designated and authorized personnel after approval, whose actions are recorded and monitored constantly by our internal cloud data security team. Without due consent and authorization from users or going through compliance procedures, we will not provide personal data to our business partners. We strictly follow the terms of authorization and the scope of usage set forth in the agreements with our users when processing and analyzing their personal data, and require all of our business partners to acknowledge and sign confidentiality agreements before they receive any user data from us. All data analyzed are encrypted and de-identified in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. If any of our business partners misuses or leaks user data provided by us or cause any damage to our users or us, we are entitled to terminate the agreements with such business partner and take protective measures, such as changing encrypted passwords and disconnecting the network, and may also pursue further legal proceedings against the business partner.
During the Track Record Period and up to the Latest Practicable Date, we had not been subject to any fines or other penalties due to non-compliance with data privacy and security laws or regulations. In the opinion of our PRC Legal Advisor, all of our major subsidiaries complied in all material aspects with relevant data privacy and security laws and regulations during the Track Record Period.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We believe that we have significant capabilities in the areas of vehicle engineering, development, and design. As a result, our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technologies and intellectual property rights. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of patents, patent applications, trade secrets, including employee and third party nondisclosure agreements, copyright laws, trademarks, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our technologies. As of March 31, 2021, we had 893 issued patents and 749 pending patent applications, which lay a solid foundation for our core proprietary technologies and the development of our next generation of EREVs and HPC BEVs. As of March 31, 2021, we had 404 registered trademarks, and 25 pending trademark applications in China. As of March 31, 2021, we also held or otherwise had the legal right to use 46 registered copyrights for software or work of art and 64 registered domain names, including lixiang.com. We intend to continue to file additional patent applications with respect to our technologies.
We protect our core technologies and proprietary rights vigorously. Mr. Wang Kai, our chief technology officer, is responsible for providing overall leadership in advanced technology research and
 
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development, including in the development and protection of our proprietary software and hardware. Led by Mr. Wang Kai, we have implemented an internal protocol to protect our proprietary rights. Our intellectual property rights protection team consists of our employees in various departments, who are responsible for coordinating intellectual property mining and strategy, timely registration of intellectual property, and other intellectual property protection matters. We enter into a nondisclosure agreement and a noncompetition agreement with each of our employees to protect our intellectual properties, business secrets, and know-how. We and our employees explicitly agree that any intellectual property developed during the course of employment belongs to us, and such non-disclosure obligation survives termination of employment. We reward employees who have made outstanding intellectual property contribution to motivate employees to develop more intellectual properties. In addition, all agreements between us and our business partners provide for our ownership of our intellectual property to prevent and protect our intellectual property from infringement. We closely monitor any attempts by others to register the same or similar intellectual property as ours and raise objections or take other measures to response in time, to protect our intellectual properties from misuse by others and protect ourselves from infringement of the intellectual property rights of third parties.
During the Track Record Period, our measures to protect our intellectual property had been effective, and we did not find any material breaches of our intellectual property rights. For various risk relating to our intellectual property rights, see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry—We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.”
COMPETITION
The China automotive market is highly competitive and we expect that it will become even more competitive in the future. We believe that our vehicles compete with premium vehicles regardless of powertrain technologies. We believe the primary competitive factors in our markets are: technological innovation, product quality and safety, product pricing, sales efficiency, manufacturing efficiency, branding, and design and styling. We believe that positive factors pertaining to our competitive position include precise consumer targeting and product defining capabilities, innovative designs and technologies, manufacturing cost management, distribution cost management, and general management efficiency as a company. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry—We may not be successful in the highly competitive China automotive market.” for risks related to competition in our industry.
CUSTOMERS AND SUPPLIERS
During the Track Record Period, our customers primarily include individual vehicle purchasers. We have a broad base of customers, and we do not believe that we have customer concentration risks. Our top five customers accounted for 1% of our total revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our top five suppliers accounted for 30%, 16%, and 32% of our purchases for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively.
As of the Latest Practicable Date, based on publicly available information, none of our directors or their close associates (as defined in the Hong Kong Listing Rules), our controlling shareholder, held a 5% or more shareholding interest in our top five suppliers.
EMPLOYEES
As of December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020 and March 31, 2021 we had 1,593, 2,628, 4,181, and 4,900 employees, respectively. All of our employees are based in China.
The following table sets forth the number of our employees by function as of March 31, 2021.
 
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Function
Number of Employees
Percentage
Research and Development 1,633 33.3%
Production 841 17.2%
Sales and Marketing 2,166 44.2%
General and Administrative Support 260 5.3%
Total 4,900 100.0%
Our success depends on our ability to attract, retain, and motivate qualified employees. We offer employees competitive salaries, performance-based cash bonuses and equity-based incentives, comprehensive training and development programs, and other fringe benefits and incentives. We believe that we maintain a good working relationship with our employees, and we have not experienced any material labor disputes or work stoppages. No collective bargaining agreement has been put in place.
As required by regulations in China, we participate in various government statutory employee benefit plans, including social insurance funds, namely, medical insurance, maternity insurance, workplace injury insurance, unemployment insurance, and pension benefits, as well as a housing provident fund. We are required under PRC law to contribute to employee benefit plans at specified percentages of the salaries, bonuses, and certain allowances of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time.
We enter into standard labor contracts with our employees. We also enter into standard confidentiality agreements with all of our employees.
As of the Latest Practicable Date, we do not have any early sale arrangement of our vehicles to our employees.
INSURANCE
We maintain various insurance policies to safeguard against risks and unexpected events. We maintain property insurance, machinery breakdown insurance, public liability insurance, commercial general liability insurance, employer’s liability insurance, driver’s liability insurance, and inland transit insurance, which we believe is in line with those of other companies in the same industry of similar size in China. In addition to providing social security insurance for our employees as required by PRC law, we also provide supplemental commercial medical insurance for our employees. We do not maintain business interruption insurance or key-man insurance. We believe that our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our key assets, facilities, and liabilities.
FACILITIES AND PROPERTIES
We are headquartered in Beijing, China. Currently, we own land use rights with respect to one parcel of land in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China of approximately 185,000 square meters and the ownership with respect to the plants thereon for the term ending on September 11, 2068 and January 23, 2069, respectively.
 
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BUSINESS
We have also leased a number of our facilities. The relevant lease agreements expire between 2021 and 2035. The following table sets forth the location, approximate size, primary use, and lease term of our major leased facilities as of March 31, 2021:
Location
Approximate
Size (Building) in
Square Meters
Primary Use
Lease Term
Expire Date
Beijing
59,954
Headquarters, office,
research and
development
15 years August 2035
Beijing
4,332
Office
2 years to 5 years
August 2021 to
January 2023
Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Shenzhen, Chongqing, Haikou, Jinan, Xi’an, Guiyang, Harbin, Hefei, Nanchang, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Xiamen, Shenyang, Shijiazhuang, Suzhou, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Changsha, Zhengzhou, Dalian, Dongguan, Foshan, Fuzhou, Hohhot, Huizhou, Kunming, Lanzhou, Linyi, Nanjing, Nantong, Quanzhou, Taizhou, Taiyuan, Tangshan, Urumqi, Weifang, Wuxi, Xining, Yantai, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Zhongshan, Zibo, Anshan, Changchun, Changzhou, Dongying, Ganzhou, Longyan, Nanchong, Qinhuangdao, Shantou, and Xiangyang
98,828
Retail stores,
delivery centers,
and servicing
centers
6 months to
8 years
September 2024 to
December 2028
Changzhou, Chongqing, and Beijing
202,573
Vehicle
manufacturing,
engineering, and
design services
3 years and 2
months to
15 years
December 2022 to
August 2032
We have a contractual option to purchase the leased property for the manufacturing facility in Changzhou at the construction cost before the expiration date of the lease or re-negotiate the lease if we fail to purchase the property. For various risk relating to our manufacturing facility in Changzhou, see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry—The expansion of our existing Changzhou manufacturing facility may be subject to delays, disruptions, cost overruns, or may not produce expected benefits.” Our PRC Legal Advisor advised us that there is no material legal impediment to renewing the lease agreements as set out above.